May/June 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 7

Animal Welfare Education in California 4-H

Posted: Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Cheryl L. Meehan, Kelley M. Brian, Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty, Emily Schoenfelder, Martin Smith, Steven M. Worker, and Andrea Ambrose

The 4-H Youth Development Program is a national non-formal education organization for youth ages 5-19. Through its national Science Mission Mandate, the 4-H program has the potential to help advance youth scientific literacy through programming in a wide variety of subject areas, including: plants and animals; environmental and earth sciences; biological sciences; physical sciences; and science and technology (4-H National Headquarters, 2007). 4-H also offers the opportunity for youth to explore topics outside of those covered by school-based science education. For example, each year approximately 30,000 youth enrolled in California 4-H participate in Animal Science projects that involve agricultural, service, and companion animals (California Enrolment Data, 2015). These projects engage youth in the rearing, caring, showing, and in some cases, breeding or marketing of these project animals. Animal Welfare is a topic that is relevant to all Animal Science projects; however, Animal Welfare has not yet been systematically addressed by 4-H in California through educational programming.  

The study of Animal Welfare is a rapidly growing field that engages scientists and veterinarians in research that seeks to provide better understanding of the needs and experiences of animals, and strives to find balance between these and the practices of modern animal use. Furthermore, Animal Welfare is a social and cultural issue that is increasingly being incorporated into the legal and political landscapes. There are few published studies evaluating the impacts of Animal Welfare focused educational programs on youth, but there is developing evidence that humane education programs can have positive impacts on children’s attitudes and behavior toward animals (Tardiff-Williams and Bosacki, 2015), as well as support the development of empathy toward other humans (Ascione and Webber, 1996). Thus, the development and implementation of educational programming for 4-H youth that focuses on Animal Welfare is relevant and timely.

To address this need, a multi-disciplinary team at UC Davis has developed a hands-on, inquiry-based curriculum organized as a set of Animal Welfare Proficiencies that integrate the key scientific and cultural components of Animal Welfare. The curriculum is built around the experiential learning cycle that promotes 4-H Animal Science youth participants to explore these scientific and cultural components in real-world contexts. An introductory module supports exploration of topics central to Animal Welfare and provides experiences with ethical decision making activities. The balance of the curriculum is organized into the five modules described below:

  • Level 1: Animal Behavior

Youth develop skills in behavioral observation, with the focus on animal behavior as a tool for measuring and interpreting Animal Welfare. Youth also gain an understanding of, and appreciation for, behavioral and cognitive capacities of animals.

  • Level 2: Animal Health

Youth engage in activities that introduce “Tip-to-Tail” health checks and health information documentation. Youth also practice observational skills and perform health-related data collection with their own animals.

  • Level 3: Housing and Husbandry

Youth identify basic needs that must be met through animal housing and care, as well as design enrichment plans that support enhanced welfare.

  • Level 4: Human Animal Interactions as an Important Component of Good Welfare

Youth explore human-animal interactions and the connections between these relations and the animal’s welfare.

  • Level 5: Knowledge and Skills Application

In Proficiency 5, youth move to the culminating activities of the project. They use a self-assessment tool to identify welfare risks present in their current practices and then implement strategies to improve the welfare of their animals.

The curriculum series was tested with 35 youth through a partnership with the 4-H Youth Development Program in California. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes were assessed using a retrospective survey tool and the resulting data were analyzed for significant changes over time. As a result of participating in the curriculum activities, youth reported that they had improved their abilities to collect both behavioral and health information and were significantly more likely to incorporate these practices into their daily animal care routines. Youth also reported that they were significantly more likely to consider their animals’ behavioral and physical needs when making decisions about housing and care then they were prior to participating in the program. Adult volunteers who implemented the program with youth also reported improving their knowledge about Animal Welfare concepts and indicated that they would be likely to incorporate the Animal Welfare Proficiencies into future 4-H Animal Science projects.

Providing in-depth and sustained educational experiences is an important strategy for enhancing subject-specific skills and scientific literacy (Smith & Meehan, 2014). The Animal Welfare Proficiency series is currently undergoing peer review with the University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Once published*, this curriculum will provide a readily accessible resource with which educators in formal and non-formal settings can explore socially- and scientifically-relevant topics of Animal Welfare with school-age youth.

*For more information, contact Martin H. Smith (mhsmith@ucdavis.edu) or Cheryl L. Meehan (clmeehan@ucdavis.edu).

References

Emily Schoenfelder is the 4-H Youth Development Adviser, and Martin Smith is a Specialist in Cooperative Extension. Steven Worker is a 4-H Youth Development Adviser, and Andrea Ambrose, Director of Development Services. Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty is a 4-H Youth Development Adviser & County Director, and Kelley Brian is the Youth, Families and Communities Adviser. All are a part of the University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources, 4-H Youth Development Program. In addition, Steven, Martin, and Lynn are members of CSTA.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

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CSTA Annual Conference Early Bird Rates End July 14

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

Teachers engaged in workshop activity

Teachers engaging in hands-on learning during a workshop at the 2016 CSTA conference.

Don’t miss your chance to register at the early bird rate for the 2017 CSTA Conference – the early-bird rate closes July 14. Need ideas on how to secure funding for your participation? Visit our website for suggestions, a budget planning tool, and downloadable justification letter to share with your admin. Want to take advantage of the early rate – but know your district will pay eventually? Register online today and CSTA will reimburse you when we receive payment from your district/employer. (For more information on how that works contact Zi Stair in the office for details – 916-979-7004 or zi@cascience.org.)

New Information Now Available On-line:

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Goodbye Outgoing and Welcome Incoming CSTA Board Members

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

Jill Grace

Jill Grace, CSTA President, 2017-2019

On July 1, 2017 five CSTA members concluded their service and four new board members joined the ranks of the CSTA Board of Directors. CSTA is so grateful for all the volunteer board of directors who contribute hours upon hours of time and energy to advance the work of the association. At the June 3 board meeting, CSTA was able to say goodbye to the outgoing board members and welcome the incoming members.

This new year also brings with it a new president for CSTA. As of July 1, 2017 Jill Grace is the president of the California Science Teachers Association. Jill is a graduate of California State University, Long Beach, a former middle school science teacher, and is currently a Regional Director with the K-12 Alliance @ WestEd where she works with California NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative districts and charter networks in the San Diego area.

Outgoing Board Members

  • Laura Henriques (President-Elect: 2011 – 2013, President: 2013 – 2015, Past President: 2015 – 2017)
  • Valerie Joyner (Region 1 Director: 2009 – 2013, Primary Director: 2013 – 2017)
  • Mary Whaley (Informal Science Education Director: 2013 – 2017)
  • Sue Campbell (Middle School/Jr. High Director: 2015 – 2017)
  • Marcus Tessier (2-Year College Director: 2015 – 2017)

Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Finding My Student’s Motivation of Learning Through Engineering Tasks

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Huda Ali Gubary and Susheela Nath

It’s 8:02 and the bell rings. My students’ walk in and pick up an entry ticket based on yesterday’s lesson and homework. My countdown starts for students to begin…3, 2, 1. Ten students are on task and diligently completing the work, twenty are off task with behaviors ranging from talking up a storm with their neighbors to silently staring off into space. This was the start of my classes, more often than not. My students rarely showed the enthusiasm for a class that I had eagerly prepared for. I spent so much time searching for ways to get my students excited about the concepts they were learning. I wanted them to feel a connection to the lessons and come into my class motivated about what they were going to learn next. I would ask myself how I could make my class memorable where the kids were in the driver’s seat of learning. Incorporating engineering made this possible. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

State Schools Chief Tom Torlakson Unveils Updated Recommended Literature List

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

SACRAMENTO—State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson unveiled an addition of 285 award-winning titles to the Recommended Literature: Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve list.

“The books our students read help broaden their perspectives, enhance their knowledge, and fire their imaginations,” Torlakson said. “The addition of these award-winning titles represents the state’s continued commitment to the interests and engagement of California’s young readers.”

The Recommended Literature: Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve list is a collection of more than 8,000 titles of recommended reading for children and adolescents. Reflecting contemporary and classic titles, including California authors, this online list provides an exciting range of literature that students should be reading at school and for pleasure. Works include fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama to provide for a variety of tastes, interests, and abilities. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Teaching Science in the Time of Alternative Facts – Why NGSS Can Help (somewhat)

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Peter A’Hearn

The father of one of my students gave me a book: In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood by Walt Brown, Ph. D. He had heard that I was teaching Plate Tectonics and wanted me to consider another perspective. The book offered the idea that the evidence for plate tectonics could be better understood if we considered the idea that beneath the continent of Pangaea was a huge underground layer of water that suddenly burst forth from a rift between the now continents of Africa and South America. The waters shot up and the continents hydroplaned apart on the water layer to their current positions. The force of the movement pushed up great mountain ranges which are still settling to this day, resulting in earthquakes along the margins of continents. This had happened about 6,000 years ago and created a great worldwide flood. Learn More…

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Written by Peter AHearn

Peter AHearn

Peter A’Hearn is the Region 4 Director for CSTA.