But What Is “Good”?! Learning and Using Observational Skills by Studying Water Taste
Posted: Tuesday, August 5th, 2014
by Joanne Michael
The beginning of the year is a fantastic time to get to know how skilled your students’ observations are when working on an experiment. While there are a number of brain teasers and visual slight-of-hands that can accomplish this, I like to do a lab that I call “Which Water is Water?” to quickly assess their skill set. From doing this, I have an immediate data set of which students are skilled at noticing subtle differences between two or more items, which students can describe something with detail, and which students are good at sitting back and allowing others to do the dirty work. Best of all the students LOVE this lab; they ask me mid-year if they can do it again! I normally do this with my 5th grade classes, but it can be done with any grade level. With the current drought occurring within California, it is also a fantastic time to discuss water sources and conservation.
Collect as many different types of water as you can. I normally get distilled water, tap water (from the drinking fountain at school), filtered water (either bring a Brita®/pur® pitcher from home and filter the school water, or pour some into a bottle from home), and bottled water. For added challenge, select multiple brands of bottled water! Sparkling water can work as well, but as there are obvious bubbles, it makes that one pretty easy to distinguish. Pour each into a large (at least 12 ounce) new clear plastic cup, and write a letter on the outside with a marker to help distinguish the waters from each other. In my science lab, I have the students sit in tables of 4, so each table has a cup with an A, B, C, or D on the outside when they walk in. Each table also has 4 Dixie® cups (or similar), and an empty bowl.
I begin the lesson by reviewing the water cycle, which we discussed in previous years, and where a lot of our water is collected and used around southern California. I also go through the definitions of the various types of water, to make everything as clear as possible. The students then select a type of water, and pour it amongst the four cups. Before tasting, they must smell the water – does it have a scent? They then take a tiny sip, and allow the water to move around their tongue to get as many different “flavors” as possible.
From there, they write observational details about their water. I do not allow them to write “opinion details” – what tastes gross to one person may be absolutely delicious to another, and so that isn’t a scientific observation. Does it taste soapy? Like dirt? Does it have an aftertaste? Taste sweet? Does the flavor absolutely disappear? They write down all observations. I encourage the students to take tiny sips, so that they can do multiple tastings if they need to do so. They can have a group discussion if they would like, but they are to write down their own observations. If the student does not like the taste at all, they can dump the rest of their sample in the bowl; likewise, if they really enjoy it, they can pour more from their big cup. After they have tasted all of the samples, they try to identify which water is which – which sample is the distilled water? The bottled water?
When the class is finished, we take a quick poll as to what they think each sample was, and show the answers. The students are normally surprised at the results – most often, they assume the bottled water is the distilled water, because distilled water is “pure” water – of COURSE it would taste the best! We then discuss the importance of different types of water, keeping our drinking water clean, how to conserve water, etc. Within the span of 45 minutes, I now know which students are skilled at minute observations, which students are leaders within a group, the general skill level at scientific adjectives, and if there are any students that need additional help in fine motor skills. The students are thrilled – they spend an hour drinking water, and not getting in trouble for consuming something in science lab! It sets the stage for the rest of the year for the students as well – they see the expectations in the science lab, and know that we will work hard but have a lot of fun in the process!
Modifications: I do this lab with my 5th grade students, but could very easily be done with any grade level. For added difficulty, only use different brands of bottled water, and try to have the students identify the different brands.
This idea originally came from One Water.
ABBREVIATED LESSON PLAN:
Grade Level: 5th
Science Area: Earth science
Science Standards Reference (1998 version): 5.3.d: Students know that the amount of fresh water located in rivers, lakes, underground sources, and glaciers is limited and that it’s availability can be extended by recycling and decreasing the use of water.
5.3.e: Students know the origin of the water used by their local communities.
Other Subject Area Standards Reinforced: “Going Green”
Title of the Lab: Water is Water
Time Required: Set-up – 10 minutes; Duration- 1 hour
Goal of the Lab (student outcomes): students will use their senses to try to taste the difference between different types of water, and to understand the various processes involved in obtaining the different types of water.
Description/Abstract: Students will taste four different types of water: tap, filtered, sparkling, and distilled. After learning about the process used for each type of water, they will write down which one they think is which, based solely on the taste. Afterwards, the teacher will reveal the answers and lead a discussion as to why they all taste so different.
Materials Needed: (per group of 4)
4 small disposable cups (Dixie® cups work perfectly)
4 larger new cups, labeled A, B, C, D, with the various waters inside
1 small bowl
1) Tell students to pour a little bit of water from cup A into each of the 4 small cups. Do a proper observation of sample A including smell, look, and taste. Write observations on data sheet. Pour out the rest of water (if they wish) into the bowl in the middle of the table.
2) Repeat for samples B, C, D. The samples may be similar. Have the students do their best to find differences between them all. Offer up suggestions, “Is it fizzy?” “Does it leave an aftertaste?”
3) When all samples have been tested, reveal answers. How many students mixed up the tap water and the bottled water? Why does the distilled water taste so strange? That’s the only one that is actually “pure” water! Show where the various waters came from on a map of California.
Assessment method: Water Worksheet
Joanne Michael is the K-5 science specialist at Meadows Elementary in Manhattan Beach, CA, and CSTA Intermediate Director.
Posted: Saturday, January 14th, 2017
The Council of Math/Science Educators of San Mateo County will be hosting the 41st annual STEM Conference this February 4, 2017 at the San Mateo County Office of Education. This STEM Conference is the place to get lots of new lessons and ideas to use in your classroom. There will be over twenty-five workshops and a variety of exhibitors that provide participants with a wide range of practical and realistic ideas and resources to use in their science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs from Pre-K to grade 12. With California’s adoption of the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards, we are dedicated to ensuring that we prepare our teachers to take on these educational policies.
Teachers, administrators and parents are invited to explore the many exciting aspects of STEM education and learn about and discuss the latest news, information and issues. This is also an opportunity to network with colleagues who can assist you in building your programs and meet new friends that share your interests and love of teaching.
Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017
What follows are several opportunities for science teachers to work with the Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CTC) on various projects that have direct or indirect implications for the implementation of NGSS in California. Please consider applying to one or more of the following opportunities.
CSET Field Testing Opportunities
Field testing opportunities for future CSET Multiple Subjects and Science tests are available beginning Dec. 5, 2016. Participants will have the choice between a $50 Barnes and Noble eGift Card or a $75 test fee voucher that may be applied to future test registration fees. For more information, including how to register to participate, please visit: http://www.pearsonvue.com/espilot/cset.asp. Learn More…
Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017
Achieve has launched and is facilitating an EQuIP Peer Review Panel for Science–a group of expert reviewers who will evaluate the quality and alignment of lessons and units to the standards–in an effort to identify and shine a spotlight on emerging high-quality lesson and unit plans designed for the NGSS.
If you or your state, district, school, or organization has designed NGSS-aligned instructional materials, please consider submitting these in order to help provide educators across the country with various models and templates of high-quality lesson and unit plans. Learn More…
Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017
An upcoming Perry Outreach Program on Saturday, April 22, 2017 at the Orthopaedic Institute for Children in Los Angeles, CA. The Perry Outreach Program is a free, one-day, hands-on experience for high school and college-aged women who are interested in pursuing careers in medicine and engineering. Students will hear from women leaders in these fields and try it for themselves by performing mock orthopaedic surgeries and biomechanics experiments. Learn More…
Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017
by Jessica Sawko
January 2017 has proven to be a very busy month for science education policy and CA NGSS implementation activities. CSTA has been and will be there every step of the way, seeking and enacting all options to support high-quality science education and the successful implementation of CA NGSS.
California Department of Education/U.S. Department of Education Science Double-Testing Waiver Hearing
The year started with California Department of Education’s (CDE) hearing with the U.S. Department of Education conducted via WebEx on January 6, 2017. This hearing was the final step in California’s efforts to secure a waiver from the federal government in order to discontinue administration of the old CST and suspension of the reporting of student test scores on a science assessment for two years. As reported by EdSource, the U.S. Department of Education representative, Ann Whalen, a senior adviser to U.S. Secretary John King Jr., committed to making her final ruling “very shortly.” Deputy Superintendent Keric Ashley presented on behalf of CDE during the hearing and did an excellent job describing the broad-based support for this waiver in California, the rationale for the waiver, and California’s commitment to the successful implementation of a new high-quality science assessment. As previously reported, California is moving forward with its plans to administer a census pilot assessments this spring. The testing window is set to open on March 20, 2017. For more information visit New CA Science Test: What You Should Know.