May/June 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 7

Celestial Highlights: May – July 2017

Monday, May 8th, 2017

May Through July 2017 with Web Resources for the Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graphs of planet rising and setting times by Jeffrey L. Hunt.

In spring and summer 2017, Jupiter is the most prominent “star” in the evening sky, and Venus, even brighter, rules the morning. By mid-June, Saturn rises at a convenient evening hour, allowing both giant planets to be viewed well in early evening until Jupiter sinks low in late September. The Moon is always a crescent in its monthly encounters with Venus, but is full whenever it appears near Jupiter or Saturn in the eastern evening sky opposite the Sun. (In 2017, Full Moon is near Jupiter in April, Saturn in June.) At intervals of 27-28 days thereafter, the Moon appears at a progressively earlier phase at each pairing with the outer planet until its final conjunction, with Moon a thin crescent, low in the west at dusk. You’ll see many beautiful events by just following the Moon’s wanderings at dusk and dawn in the three months leading up to the solar eclipse. (more…)

Let’s Get Them Outside!

Friday, May 5th, 2017

by Jacquelyn Johansen

As a science teacher, I am lucky enough to be able to take my students to several outdoor venues where students have the opportunity to learn in a natural environment. This has been an invaluable part of their education experience: students can multiply their knowledge of field methods, make strides in their environmental stewardship, and learn to use NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards). Based on my observations of student learning in outdoor environments, I set out to find answers about how inquiry and participatory education opportunities affect the attitudes of students towards nature.

I surveyed students on two field trips to a local zoo and found they showed statistically significant increases in their connectedness to nature using the Nisbet Nature Relatedness Survey (Nisbet, et al, 2009). This survey included nature “experience” questions such as, “I take notice of wildlife wherever I am,” and “perspectives” questions such as, “I think a lot about the suffering of animals” (Nisbet, et al, 2009). Students also showed increases in the category of “self,” which included statements related to the entitlement of humans to resources such as, “humans have the right to use natural resources any way we want” (Nisbet, et al, 2009). This category seeks to distinguish individuals who feel a strong sense of environmental stewardship from those who are willing to take what they want without considering the cost to the world around them. Based on the results of these surveys, it has become clear to me that outdoor learning can be an integral part of a student’s educational experience.  (more…)

The How (and Why) of Science Notebooking in the Classroom

Monday, March 13th, 2017

by Clea Matson

“The science notebooks get all the students involved and interested in science. Whether they like to write, or like to draw, or like asking questions, there is an entry point for all of them.” – Erica, 5th Grade teacher, San Francisco

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) ask teachers and students to spend more time thinking and working like scientists. As Karen Cerwin mentioned in her article posted in August, 2016, notebooks are a tool that scientists use to record, reason, and share ideas. From her perspective as Regional Director for K-12 Alliance, Cerwin identifies ways in which science notebooks can be powerful tools for sense-making in the elementary classroom. The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) has created an online library of resources called Science Notebook Corner in order to provide support to teachers state and nationwide in making use of these powerful thinking tools. (more…)

Connect with CSTA at the NSTA Los Angeles Conference

Monday, March 13th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

la2017_logo_235x235

It is not too late to register and join me at the NSTA Conference in Los Angeles! Over 10,000 science educators from across the country are expected to arrive in Los Angeles at the end of the month to participate in the largest science education conference in the United States. CSTA and many of our members will be in attendance. Members will be presenting workshops, professional learning institutes, featured presentations, and attending several of more than 1,000 events that will take place during the March 30-April 2, 2017 event. (more…)

Last Call…. Please Consider Running for the Board of Directors!

Thursday, January 12th, 2017

by Laura Henriques

It’s that time of year again when we ask our members to consider nominating themselves (or a peer) to serve on the CSTA Board of Directors. It’s an important task and not to be taken lightly, but it is rewarding, interesting, and if you are a member in good standing, it’s something you are eligible to do.

CSTA Board of Directors take feedback from our members and help move the organization forward. Board members serve for two years (with the opportunity to run for a second two-year term). If elected you would attend quarterly board meetings (virtual meetings and in-person meetings), serve on CSTA committees and provide input to the organization. You get to work with other committed science educators to promote high quality science education in California. As a board member you will be informed of legislative issues, learn about opportunities to serve, and be on the forefront of policies associated with science education. (more…)

2017 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair

Thursday, January 12th, 2017

The volunteer/interpreter and judge sign up for the 2017 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair are live online.

Volunteer/Interpreter registration website is live. We have volunteer jobs open starting Thurs, May 11 through Fri, May 19. The greatest need for interpreters is Wed, May 17. https://student.societyforscience.org/volunteers. (more…)

Science Literacy and Civic Engagement Go Hand in Hand

Wednesday, November 16th, 2016

by Emily Schoenfelder, Martin Smith, Steven M. Worker, Andrea Ambrose, Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty, and Kelley M. Brian 

Introduction

Science is an integral part of the most complex social and political issues of our time. Concerns such as global warming, food and water security, and medical research show that science must be a driving force in addressing the environmental, economic, and social problems of our society. As such, members of this society must be prepared with sufficient scientific literacy to responsibly engage with such issues (Committee on Prospering in the Global Economy, 2007). Today’s youth are in need of tools, experience, and scientific knowledge to face these challenges. While classroom education provides core knowledge, informal science programs may be well-placed to help make the connections between science and civic engagement (Fenichel & Schweingruber, 2010) (more…)

NSTA Is Coming to Los Angeles!

Monday, November 14th, 2016

by Jessica Sawko

With the 2016 California Science Education Conference now in our rear view, CSTA has begun to look towards the next major science education event scheduled to take place in our fine state – the National Science Teachers Association’s National Conference on Science Education! This incredible event is expected to draw more than 10,000 science educators from all over the country to the Los Angeles Convention Center March 30-April 2, 2017. Luckily for us here in California, this incredible event right here in our great state, and CSTA members are eligible to register for the conference at member rates! For more information and to register today, visit http://www.nsta.org/conferences/national.aspx. (more…)

Celestial Highlights, September 2016

Tuesday, September 20th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt 

Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. (more…)

Evening Planets in School Year 2016-17

Monday, September 19th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Thanks to Robert D. Miller for the monthly twilight charts,

and to Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt for the graphs of planets’ rising and setting times. 

Monthly sky maps for September 2016 through June 2017 depict the changing positions of the five bright planets and the 16 stars of first magnitude or brighter visible from southern California. Planets are plotted daily at mid-twilight, when the Sun is 9° below the horizon, 39 to 53 minutes after sunset, depending on latitude and time of year. Star positions are shown as continuous curves, as stars drift west with the advancing season, a result of the Earth’s revolution about the Sun. Inspect the charts in sequence to follow a planet’s progress through the weeks or months of its apparition. Keep in mind that the Sun is below the western horizon. Mercury and Venus, inner planets, climb up from the western horizon only a limited distance, and then fall back to the same horizon. The outer planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn begin evening visibility at the eastern horizon (opposite the Sun) and end their apparitions sinking into the western twilight glow.  (more…)

Why Students with Special Needs Need Science in Your Classroom

Friday, August 19th, 2016

by Scott Campbell

I am a resource-level special education teacher. Like you, I teach students. As in most classrooms, my students’ skill levels run the gamut from very low to approaching grade level. Unlike you, I do not specifically teach science. Students in my resource program do not qualify for services in science. They qualify for services in the specific areas of reading, writing, math, listening, and speaking. They are pulled out of the regular education classroom for those services. I do my best to schedule these services so there is minimal disruption to you, but the number of students to be seen and the number of minutes available to me limits me. I want us to be partners in the education of our students and I need you to know that my students need to have science in your classroom. (more…)

Finding New Resources in a Changing Science Education Landscape

Friday, August 19th, 2016

by Amity Sandage

Field studies at Santa Cruz County Outdoor Science School

Field studies at Santa Cruz County Outdoor Science School

After two decades in education, I still love the natural rhythm of the school year. It is the teacher’s turn in the learning cycle. Reflections at the end of each school year spark new ideas that then flow and percolate throughout the summer. And I know come August I always find myself excited and apprehensive in equal measure. Excited to improve and try new approaches, and apprehensive because I need some concrete resources to accomplish the goals that began as visions floating around in my head and morphed and settled over summer into real plans. But where and how to find these resources when fall is fast approaching and NGSS is changing the landscape? (more…)

Celestial Highlights, August 2016

Wednesday, August 10th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt

August 2016 has rare gifts for skywatchers — for most of the month, all five naked-eye planets can be seen during evening twilight, and they participate in beautiful pairings and groupings! From a site with an unobstructed view of the western horizon, begin within half an hour after sunset, to catch Venus before it sinks too low. Use our evening twilight chart and diagrams selected from the Abrams Planetarium Sky Calendar to guide you.

Venus at mag. –3.8 will be visible with unaided eye. (It will get higher in coming months, setting in a dark sky starting in October, climbing highest in January 2017, and reaching spectacular brilliance at mag. –4.8 in February, before quickly departing from the evening sky in late March.) Links to graphs of planet setting times in 2016-2017: [SoCal] [NorCal]
(more…)

Everybody In! Using Cultural Awareness to Support Diverse Classrooms

Wednesday, August 10th, 2016

by Emily Schoerning

California science teachers work with some of the most diverse student populations in the country. Finding ways to help students from all sorts of backgrounds achieve in the science classroom can be a real challenge. Learning science often means learning a lot of vocabulary, but it also means learning how to present scientific arguments and utilize the scientific method. By recognizing the intense language and cultural demands of classroom science, we can help to build inclusive environments where diverse students can succeed. (more…)

Biology and Chemistry Equal…Climate Change?

Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Minda Berbeco

A few years ago, I was at a teacher conference in Atlanta representing my organization, the National Center for Science Education (NCSE). I was chatting with a teacher and mentioned how I was going to be giving a talk shortly on climate change education, and the teacher to my surprise said to me, “well I teach chemistry, so that’s not related to me.”

That was a bit of a head-scratcher for me, and I’m sure that notion would be a surprise to every atmospheric chemist who works directly on climate change, or even the many oceanographers, terrestrial and aquatic biogeochemists and even soil scientists who work with climate change every day.

On retrospect though, I think I understand what he was getting at. Climate change isn’t in the chemistry science standards for any state. They aren’t in the life sciences standards for most states either. In fact, until recently if it was anywhere at all, it’d be in earth science or environmental science – which is often an elective at many schools. And yet, from a study that NCSE completed this past year in collaboration with researchers at Penn State, we know that over 50% of chemistry teachers are teaching climate change nationally and over 85% of biology teachers are doing it too! (more…)

Three Examples of Science Education Leaders (at least by my definition of leadership)

Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Joseph Calmer

Whenever I think about leadership I mentally cut away to various scenes in Office Space. I think too often ‘leadership’ and ‘boss’ are mistakenly used interchangeably. It is probably too common in schools to simply tell teachers what to do (i.e. the old standards) rather than build support of a vision that teachers will (collectively) work towards (i.e. the NGSS standards). For too long science teachers were simply told what to teach.

The problem is, that is not leadership (at least not in my mind). For me, I can differentiate titles from leadership. Yes, there is a chain of command that gives guidance and structure to an organization. But I think that a person who simply has more power than me is not necessarily my leader. The difference between authority and leadership isn’t often thought about or discussed; maybe they are too often even mistaken for the same thing. (more…)

Animal Welfare Education in California 4-H

Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Cheryl L. Meehan, Kelley M. Brian, Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty, Emily Schoenfelder, Martin Smith, Steven M. Worker, and Andrea Ambrose

The 4-H Youth Development Program is a national non-formal education organization for youth ages 5-19. Through its national Science Mission Mandate, the 4-H program has the potential to help advance youth scientific literacy through programming in a wide variety of subject areas, including: plants and animals; environmental and earth sciences; biological sciences; physical sciences; and science and technology (4-H National Headquarters, 2007). 4-H also offers the opportunity for youth to explore topics outside of those covered by school-based science education. For example, each year approximately 30,000 youth enrolled in California 4-H participate in Animal Science projects that involve agricultural, service, and companion animals (California Enrolment Data, 2015). These projects engage youth in the rearing, caring, showing, and in some cases, breeding or marketing of these project animals. Animal Welfare is a topic that is relevant to all Animal Science projects; however, Animal Welfare has not yet been systematically addressed by 4-H in California through educational programming.   (more…)

How to Shift to the 3-Dimensional Teaching of NOS for the CA NGSS: Chapter 10

Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Lawrence Flammer

Have you been wondering just how you can adapt your favorite lessons to comply with the 3 dimensions of the CA NGSS? And how to shift effectively from your “traditional” teaching style to an “authentic” scientific problem-solving approach? Well, did you read the draft version of the proposed CA Science Framework when it went out for public review last December? And did you get to chapter 10? If you did, you found answers to those first questions. If you didn’t, then DO take a look at Chapter 10.

When the draft was made public, you were strongly encouraged to read Chapters 1 and 2 first. Did you do that? I suspect that many teachers, busy with pre-vacation shut down may have put off their critique of the draft until vacation time. Then vacation time became more impacted than expected, so that critique probably became a minimal review of a specific grade level, and/or a specific subject area of particular experience and expertise. Many may have even skipped the reading of chapters 1 and 2 altogether. Well, if that describes your actions, then you may have just missed much of the material that provides excellent support for making the transition from your former teaching methods to the new expectations of the CA NGSS. (more…)

Science Teachers – In What Ways Have You Partnered with Your School Librarian?

Friday, May 20th, 2016

by Laura Henriques

Early this spring the California School Library Association, CSLA,  hosted their annual conference. They invited subject area professional organizations to attend the meeting and do a presentation. I was there to represent CSTA and do a workshop. Since then I have had a few conversations with Dr. Lesley Farmer, a colleague of mine at CSULB and former President of the California School Library Foundation, CSLA’s Vice President and editor of CSLA’s journal, about ways to that our members might be able to collaborate and learn with and from each other. School librarians and media specialists can be powerful partners and help us find good resources. (more…)

Book Review: The Not-So-Intelligent Designer, by Abby Hafer

Friday, May 20th, 2016

by Glenn Branch

As the title of The Not-So-Intelligent Designer suggests, Abby Hafer is ready to take intelligent design seriously. A zoologist who teaches human anatomy and physiology at Curry College, she invokes her specialty to argue that intelligent design is refuted by the quirks and kinks, the makeshift solutions and haywire failures, of human biology. Along the way, she offers a spirited assault on the promoters of intelligent design, accusing them of purveying uncertainty and doubt about evolution, peddling religion disguised as science, and engaging in propaganda reminiscent of the tobacco industry. (more…)

Celestial Highlights for May and June 2016

Wednesday, May 11th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Planet rising and setting graphs by Jeffrey L. Hunt

Make necessary preparations to safely observe the transit of Mercury across the Sun on May 9. Jupiter is brightest “star” in evening sky this spring until Mars offers serious competition in late May, as the Red Planet presents its brightest and closest approach since 2005. Mars-Saturn-Antares triangle expands in size and rises earlier in evening as weeks pass. Moon-Jupiter pair up on May 14, and a “Blue Moon” and Red Mars at its brightest, team up on May 21. Provide your students chances in May and June to get close-up telescopic views of all three bright outer planets! (more…)

Experience the Wonders of California Marine Life

Friday, April 8th, 2016

by Laura O’Dell

Now at CSTA discounted rates!

Monterey_Bay_Logo

If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.” –Loren Eiseley

There is no other place full of wonder and possibilities than our oceans. What better place to explore the wonder of marine life than California’s own Monterey Bay Aquarium? If your summer travel plans include a trip to the Central Coast of California, a stop at the Aquarium is a must. Located in Monterey’s historic Cannery Row waterfront, the Aquarium is the gold-standard for marine life exhibits. Not only will a visit remind you of the sense of wonder that led you to become a science teacher, the Aquarium can provide you with resources that enhance your knowledge and skills as you navigate the NGSS. (more…)

Celestial Highlights for April and May 2016

Friday, April 8th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Planet rising and setting graphs by Jeffrey L. Hunt.

Jupiter, and Sirius until it departs, continue to dominate evening sky (April and May). This year’s best evening appearance of Mercury in mid-April precedes its transit across the Sun on May 9. Mars kindles to its brightest and closest since 2005. Mars-Saturn-Antares triangle, prominent in morning, rises earlier in evening as weeks pass. “Blue Moon” and Red Mars team up on May 21. Don’t miss this spring’s chances to get close-up telescopic views of other planets!

Apr. 7–New Moon 4:24 a.m. PDT. Moon at perigee 11 a.m. Large tides!

Apr. 8–Young crescent Moon, age 39 hours, easy to see in twilight. Look for Mercury to Moon’s lower right, and earthshine on dark side of Moon.

Apr. 10–Moon occults Aldebaran in daytime (use telescope). In evening, find this star and Hyades cluster closely lower right of Moon, a spectacular sight for binoculars!

Apr. 12–Spica at opposition, visible all night. (more…)

Celestial Highlights, March Through June 2016

Monday, March 14th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Planet rising and setting graphs by Jeffrey L. Hunt

From early March through early June 2016, Earth overtakes all three bright outer planets within 90 days, each planet reaching peak brilliance and all-night visibility: Jupiter in early March, Mars in late May, and Saturn in early June. For several months following these dates of their oppositions, each respective planet will remain conveniently visible in the evening sky…at last! (more…)

Climate Change and the Classroom (with a focus on High School)

Monday, February 8th, 2016

by Pamela J. Gordon

More than any other class I took at Lynbrook High School (1973-77, in San Jose), the class on environmental conservation most informed my career as an environmental consultant and Climate Reality Leader.

So strong was our teacher Hal Skillman’s commitment to his students’ efficacy in protecting the environment, that half-way into his semester-long class, he suddenly announced to his idealistic students, “Tomorrow we’ll start a unit on economics.” “Economics?” my classmates and I wondered. “What does economics have to do with protecting the planet?” Without squelching my passion for protecting and improving the natural environment, Mr. Skillman demonstrated that making substantive and lasting environmental improvements necessitated the bridging of science and Capitalism. (more…)

Celestial Highlights, February Through Early March 2016

Sunday, February 7th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. 

For much of February, early risers can enjoy all five bright planets before dawn. The waning Moon sweeps past all five bright planets Jan. 27-Feb. 6, and in its next time around, past four planets Feb. 24-Mar. 7. Jupiter begins rising in evening twilight. 

On our evening and morning mid-twilight charts, showing the five naked-eye planets and the 16 stars of first magnitude or brighter visible from southern California, stars always shift from east to west (left to right) in the course of the month, as a consequence of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun. (more…)

The Power of Storytelling in the NGSS Classroom

Thursday, January 14th, 2016

by Anna Van Dordrecht, MA and Adrienne Larocque, PhD

Storytelling, which is fundamental to humanity, is increasingly being used by scientists to communicate research to a broader audience. This is evident in the success of scientists like Neil deGrasse Tyson. Capitalizing on this, in our classrooms we both tell stories about scientists under the banner of People to Ponder. Benefits of storytelling for students are numerous, and many align with NGSS. Specifically, Appendix H states that, “It is one thing to develop the practices and crosscutting concepts in the context of core disciplinary ideas; it is another aim to develop an understanding of the nature of science within those contexts. The use of case studies from the history of science provides contexts in which to develop students’ understanding of the nature of science.”

A Person to Ponder – Frances Kelsey

Frances Kelsey was born in 1914 in British Columbia, Canada. She graduated from high school at 15 and entered McGill University where she studied Pharmacology. After graduation, she wrote to a famous researcher in Pharmacology at the University of Chicago and asked for a graduate position. He accepted her, thinking that she was a man. While in Chicago, Kelsey was asked by the Food and Drug Administration to research unusual deaths related to a cleaning solvent; she determined that a compound, diethylene glycol, was responsible. This led to the 1938 passage of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which gave the FDA control to oversee safety in these categories. In 1938, Kelsey received her PhD and joined the Chicago faculty. Through her research, she discovered that some drugs could pass to embryos through the placental barrier. (more…)

Students Apply NGSS Science Practices in Environmental Stewardship

Thursday, January 14th, 2016

by Deborah Tucker, Bill Andrews, and Kathryn Hayes

Regardless of the grade level(s) you teach and the ability levels of your students, if you are looking for collaborative projects that get your students excited about learning while applying the NGSS science practices, read on! We surveyed California teachers who participated in a 4-month Environmental Education (EE) Professional Development (PD) institute in Spring 2015 and found they were re-energized and truly inspired as they facilitated student-driven environmental stewardship projects that encouraged student use of NGSS science practices. Based on participating teacher feedback, your passion for teaching may also be renewed and your students will be proud that they made a difference for the environment!

EE Professional Development Institute

Science practices can be taught at all grade levels in a variety of environment-based projects, as evidenced by 28 teachers (K-12) from the Los Angeles area with an average of 13.5 years of teaching experience. The teachers participated in a 4-month environmental education professional development institute and received in-depth content instruction from experts provided by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power and the California Environmental Education Foundation (CEEF) in partnership with the CA Department of Water Resources, Sandia National Laboratories, and the Los Angeles Metropolitan Water District. The institute also focused on effective pedagogy (including the 5Es), required teacher facilitation of a student-driven environmental stewardship project, and provided follow-up support from both the local California Regional Environmental Education Community (CREEC) Network Coordinator and a Regional Director with the K-12 Alliance. The teachers were asked to incorporate two NGSS science practices (#6 explaining and #8 communicating) into the student work. (more…)

Celestial Highlights, January Through Early February 2016

Thursday, January 14th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller

From March into August 2016, the bright planets, one by one, will enter the evening sky. But now, for a few weeks in January-February, early risers can enjoy all five bright planets before dawn. The waning Moon sweeps past four bright planets Dec. 31-Jan. 7, and past all five bright planets Jan. 27-Feb. 6.

One hour before sunrise, find brilliant Venus in SE, with Saturn nearby to its upper right Jan. 1-8 and lower left thereafter. These two planets are 8° apart on Jan. 1, closing to 5° on Jan. 4. On two spectacular mornings, they’ll appear in the same telescopic field, within 0.7° apart on Jan. 8, and 0.5° on Jan. 9. They’re still within 4° on Jan. 12, widening to 7° on Jan. 15, then to 15° on Jan. 22, and 25° on Jan. 31. Each day, Venus goes E against background stars by just over 1.2°, Saturn by only 0.1°, while Mars goes E about 0.5°. Watch Venus pass 6° N of first-magnitude Antares, heart of the Scorpion, on Jan. 7, and 3° N of Lambda in Sagittarius, the 3rd-mag. star marking the top of the Teapot, on Jan. 28. Steady Saturn is 6.3° to 7.5° from reddish twinkling Antares this month, and stays 6°-9° from that star throughout Saturn’s current apparition, ending when the planet sinks into evening twilight in November 2016. (more…)

Classroom Technology – Some Great Apps and Tools

Friday, December 11th, 2015

by Elizabeth Cooke

Often, I have a student helper to take pictures of the class at work conducting design challenges, exploring in the garden, or creating physical models of phenomena discussed during science class. The pictures generally end up on the bulletin board to document the students’ discoveries and provide empirical evidence for parents, administrators, and for inspiring students at large. The student helper, in addition to taking pictures, also interviews three other students about what they have learned using voice memo app for me to transcribe later and add to the bulletin board. (more…)

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