January/February 2018 – Vol. 31 No. 2

Celestial Highlights for April 2015

Posted: Wednesday, April 1st, 2015

by Robert Victor and Robert D. Miller

A predawn total lunar eclipse on Saturday, April 4. (For more on that event, see the March issue of CCS). As many as four planets can be seen at dusk. Many bright stars are gathering in the west before their annual departures later in spring.

Few people may choose to arise early to catch the start of the lunar eclipse on Saturday morning, April 4, when the Moon begins to enter the umbra, or dark central core of Earth’s shadow at 3:16 a.m. PDT. For the next 1.7 hours, progressively more of the Moon will be immersed in Earth’s circular dark shadow, until the start of total eclipse at 4:58 a.m. Even before then, the rusty color typical of the Moon in deep eclipse should be noticed, at least in the lower part of the Moon’s disk, closer to the center of Earth’s shadow. Totality lasts less than five minutes, as the northern (upper) edge of the Moon barely passes within the outer edge of Earth’s umbra. There should be a pronounced difference in color and brightness between the top and bottom edges of the Moon. Totality ends by 5:03 a.m., after which the Moon gradually emerges from shadow.

For information on how to estimate the color and brightness of the Moon during totality, refer to the Celestial Highlights article in the March issue of eCCS.

If you prefer to restrict your viewing to just an hour, I recommend 4:30 until 5:30 a.m. PDT, centering on deepest eclipse at 5:00 a.m. At mid-totality, the Moon will be quite dim compared to a normal Full Moon, and observers in dark locations will get a spectacular view of the Milky Way, from Cassiopeia low in NNE, through the Summer Triangle of Vega-Deneb-Altair high in E, and through Sagittarius and Scorpius (with Saturn and Antares) in the southern sky, these two constellations along with Ophiuchus hosting the central bulge of our galaxy.

Spica will be just 10° upper left of the Moon at mid-eclipse on April 4, with golden Arcturus high to their upper right. Next morning, on Easter Sunday April 5, Spica will appear within 4° below the Moon, and on April 8 the Moon will appear within 2° upper right of Saturn and 10° upper right of twinkling Antares, the red supergiant star marking the Scorpion’s heart. The waning gibbous Moon moves through the predawn Milky Way Apr. 9-11, and by Apr. 12 it has passed Last Quarter phase and so appears slightly less than half full. Last easy view of the waning crescent will be low in E an hour before sunup on Apr. 16, with another chance for binocular users half an hour before sunrise on Apr. 17, only 30 hours before New.

The brightest “stars” in Evening mid-twilight in April 2015, in order of brilliance, are: Venus in W to WNW; Jupiter, passing just south of overhead around midmonth; Sirius in SW sky, bluish and twinkling, lower as month progresses; Mercury, emerging from superior conjunction beyond Sun on Apr. 9 to appear very low in WNW to lower right of Venus starting around Apr. 18; Arcturus in ENE to E, higher as month progresses; and Capella, high in NW.

The gap between Venus and Jupiter continues to close, from 84° on April 1 to 51° on April 30, on the way to their spectacular rendezvous on June 30.

This is a good month to follow the motion of Venus against background stars. During Apr. 9-11, Venus passes within 3° S of the Pleiades, or Seven Sisters star cluster, an especially beautiful sight for binoculars! Students can make nightly sketches of the appearance of Venus and surrounding stars around those dates, and during Apr. 16-22 as Venus passes Aldebaran and the Hyades cluster, those stars together comprising the “V”-shaped head of Taurus, the Bull. Venus will pass between the tips of the Bull’s horns on the evening of May 1. Meanwhile Jupiter lingers within 5°-6° east of the Beehive all month. Use binoculars to find that star cluster.

Include the Moon in your sketches when it appears. On Apr. 19, 40 min. after sunset, the thin young crescent, age 32 hours past New, will be low in W to WNW. Binoculars may show Mercury within 8° to Moon’s lower right, and dim Mars within 4° upper left of Mercury and within 5° lower right of Moon. This is the same night Venus passes closest north (7° upper right) of Aldebaran. On Apr. 20, the lovely crescent Moon will be almost directly below Venus, within 9° lower right of Aldebaran, and 9° lower left of the Pleiades. On Apr. 21, the Moon climbs to 5° upper left of Aldebaran, while Venus shines within 8° to their upper right. Far to their lower right, dim Mars glows only 1.5° to upper left of bright Mercury.

On Apr. 22, Betelgeuse, shoulder of Orion, is 10° S (lower left) of the crescent Moon, while Mercury-Mars appear closest to each other, 1.3° apart, with fainter Mars to lower left. This is the first evening emerging Mercury is higher than sinking Mars. They’ll be 2.0° apart on Apr. 23, while Moon is midway between Betelgeuse and Pollux, brighter of Gemini twins. On Apr. 24, the fat crescent (42%) Moon exits Winter Hexagon nearly halfway from Procyon to Pollux. On Apr. 25, the First Quarter Moon, half full, is 9° lower right of Jupiter.

On Apr. 26, the Moon is in waxing gibbous phase, 8° to Jupiter’s lower left, and on the next night, Apr. 27, it appears 4° S of Regulus, heart of Leo, the Lion.

On Apr. 30, Mercury passes within 2° S of the Pleiades (use binoculars to see the cluster). During Apr. 30-May 8 Mercury stays 22° lower left of Venus as both planets move eastward against the star background.

At dusk on May 1, the Moon, not quite Full, appears 5° above Spica, and on the next evening, 8° to the star’s lower left. Full Moon will occur on the evening of May 3, with the Moon 21° to the lower left of Spica.

Mid-April is a good time for students to start keeping a checklist of bright stars seen each evening, within the first hour after sunset. Many bright stars are gathered in the western sky, including the huge Winter Hexagon. Striking changes in the visibility of stars will occur in the next several weeks, as a result of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun. Students can list their sightings of the planets, too! An observer’s log is provided here.

For related classroom and desktop activities for students to explain these observations, go to this link:


and then scroll down to “Modeling seasonal visibility of stars and visibility of the planets.” Includes planet orbit charts, a data table for plotting planets, and an activity sheet with 15 questions on visibility of stars and planets in 2015-2016.

For more information on sky events in 2015, see these articles and activities:


(A selection of twilight sky charts for use during months of the best planet gatherings.)

Links to related activities on the changing visibility of stars and planets, a selection of sky maps for northern California (exact for lat. 40° N), and a preview of Comet Halley’s next appearance in 2061, are now available at www.abramsplanetarium.org/msta/

Robert D. Miller, who provided the twilight charts, did graduate work in Planetarium Science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy.

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Written by Robert Victor

Robert Victor

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs, CA. Robert is a member of CSTA.

One Response

  1. Please get this to Robert Victor. I am a long time friend who has lost touch with him.


    Hello my friend, how has life been for you ? Remember me ? Bird watching and the astronomy event in Alpena/Atlanta, Michigan. Good times…

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Accelerating into NGSS – A Statewide Rollout Series Now Accepting Registrations

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

Are you feeling behind on the implementation of NGSS? Then Accelerating into NGSS – the Statewide Rollout event – is right for you!

If you have not experienced Phases 1-4 of the Statewide Rollout, or are feeling behind with the implementation of NGSS, the Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout will provide you with the greatest hits from Phases 1-4!

Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout is a two-day training geared toward grade K-12 academic coaches, administrators, curriculum leads, and teacher leaders. Check-in for the two-day rollout begins at 7:30 a.m., followed by a continental breakfast. Sessions run from 8:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. on Day One and from 8:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Day Two.

Cost of training is $250 per attendee. Fee includes all materials, continental breakfast, and lunch on both days. It is recommended that districts send teams of four to six, which include at least one administrator. Payment can be made by check or credit card. If paying by check, registration is NOT complete until payment has been received. All payments must be received prior to the Rollout location date you are attending. Paying by credit card secures your seat at time of registration. No purchase orders accepted. No participant cancellation refunds.

For questions or more information, please contact Amy Kennedy at akennedy@sjcoe.net or (209) 468-9027.



MARCH 28-29, 2018
Host: San Mateo County Office of Education
Location: San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City

APRIL 10-11, 2018
Host: Orange County Office of Education
Location: Brandman University, Irvine

MAY 1-2, 2018
Host: Tulare County Office of Education
Location: Tulare County Office of Education, Visalia

MAY 3-4, 2018
Host: San Bernardino Superintendent of Schools
Location: West End Educational Service Center, Rancho Cucamonga

MAY 7-8, 2018
Host: Sacramento County Office of Education
Location: Sacramento County Office of Education Conference Center and David P. Meaney Education Center, Mather

JUNE 14-15, 2018
Host: Imperial County Office of Education
Location: Imperial Valley College, Imperial

Presented by the California Department of Education, California County Superintendents Educational Services Association/County Offices of Education, K-12 Alliance @WestEd, California Science Project, and the California Science Teachers Association.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

The Teaching and Learning Collaborative, Reflections from an Administrator

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

by Kelly Patchen

My name is Mrs. Kelly Patchen, and I am proud to be an elementary assistant principal working in the Tracy Unified School District (TUSD) at Louis Bohn and McKinley Elementary Schools. Each of the schools I support are Title I K-5 schools with about 450 students, a diverse student population, a high percentage of English Language Learners, and students living in poverty. We’re also lucky to be part of the CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative with the K-12 Alliance. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

2018 CSTA Conference Call for Proposals

Posted: Wednesday, January 17th, 2018

CSTA is pleased to announce that we are now accepting proposals for 90-minute workshops and three- and six-hour short courses for the 2018 California Science Education Conference. Workshops and short courses make up the bulk of the content and professional learning opportunities available at the conference. In recognition of their contribution, members who present a workshop or short course receive 50% off of their registration fees. Click for more information regarding proposals, or submit one today by following the links below.

Short Course Proposal

Workshop Proposal Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

CSTA’s New Administrator Facebook Group Page

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Holly Steele

The California Science Teachers Association’s mission is to promote high-quality science education, and one of the best practice’s we use to fulfill that mission is through the use of our Facebook group pages. CSTA hosts several closed and moderated Facebook group pages for specific grade levels, (Elementary, Middle, and High School), pages for district coaches and science education faculty, and the official CSTA Facebook page. These pages serve as an online resource for teachers and coaches to exchange teaching methods, materials, staying update on science events in California and asking questions. CSTA is happy to announce the creation of a 6th group page called, California Administrators Supporting Science. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Find Your Reason to Engage

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Jill Grace

I was recently reflecting on events in the news and remembered that several years ago, National Public Radio had a story about a man named Stéphane Hessel, a World War II French resistance fighter, Nazi concentration camp survivor, and contributor to the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The story focused on a book he had published, Time for Outrage (2010).

In it, Hessel makes the argument that the worst attitude is indifference:

“Who is in charge; who are the decision makers? It’s not always easy to discern. We’re not dealing with a small elite anymore, whose actions we can clearly identify. We are dealing with a vast, interdependent world that is interconnected in unprecedented ways. But there are unbearable things all around us. You have to look for them; search carefully. Open your eyes and you will see. This is what I tell young people: If you spend a little time searching, you will find your reasons to engage. The worst attitude is indifference. ‘There’s nothing I can do; I get by’ – adopting this mindset will deprive you of one of the fundamental qualities of being human: outrage.  Our capacity for protest is indispensable, as is our freedom to engage.”

His words make me take pause when I think of the status of science in the United States. A general “mistrust” of science is increasingly pervasive, as outlined in a New Yorker article from the summer of 2016. Learn More…

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Written by Jill Grace

Jill Grace

Jill Grace is a Regional Director for the K-12 Alliance and is President of CSTA.