January/February 2018 – Vol. 31 No. 2

Celestial Highlights for January 2014

Posted: Tuesday, January 7th, 2014

by Robert Victor and Robert D. Miller

Jupiter up all night as students return in January. Venus, passing Earth, leaves evening sky, joining Mars and Saturn in morning. Consider a morning sky watch!

Morning and evening twilight charts for each month through the end of 2014, along with charts for plotting the positions of planets in their orbits, and exercises to help students visualize the motion of Spaceship Earth and understand and enjoy the changing visibility of planets and stars, are available online. These twilight charts are drawn for southern California (lat. 34° N, Los Angeles and Palm Springs). Charts for lat. 40° N, more accurate for northern California, are also available at the web link above.

At dusk: The six brightest “stars” in evening mid-twilight, in order of brightness, are: Venus, Jupiter, Sirius (after it appears late in month), Mercury (after it appears around midmonth), Vega, and Capella.

Evening planets:

  • Venus drops below mid-twilight horizon after Jan. 5, but can be followed closer to sunset by careful observers until its Jan. 11 inferior conjunction with the Sun. Venus’ phase narrows from 3% to less than 1% illumination of its disk, over 1 arcminute across. At the start of January, Venus is about to overtake us and does so on Jan. 11. It is on the near side of the Sun, and telescopic observation of the crescent phase confirms this.
  • Jupiter: As we look into the evening sky, we are gazing out the rear window of Spaceship Earth. Jupiter and the surrounding winter stars get higher in eastern sky as month progresses, owing to the Earth’s revolution around the Sun. Jupiter is visible all night early in January. Use binoculars in twilight to reveal the giant planet as a disk. It ascends in ENE to E, is at opposition to the Sun on Jan. 5 and reaches peak brilliance at mag. –2.7.
  • Mercury is emerging from the Sun’s far side, and on Jan. 30 it reaches greatest elongation 18° from the Sun. We are leaving slow-moving Jupiter behind. As Orion (marked by Betelgeuse and Rigel) rises higher, Procyon and Sirius follow it into view. Once Sirius has risen, the entire Winter Hexagon Sirius-Rigel-Aldebaran-Capella-Pollux-Procyon-Sirius is in view, and within it, Betelgeuse and Jupiter. Other stars visible are the Summer Triangle sinking into WNW (Altair disappears soon after mid-Jan.) and lonely Fomalhaut sinking into SW.


At dawn: The five brightest “stars” in morning mid-twilight are: Venus (after it appears around midmonth); Jupiter (until it drops below WNW horizon around midmonth); Arcturus; Vega; and Capella, until it drops below NW horizon.

  • Jupiter can still be seen in the morning sky at the end of January, but then you’ll have to look before the onset of twilight to catch the planet before it sets. Look for an arch of stars above Jupiter in NW to W, comprised of Capella, Castor (not shown, just 4.5° to the right of Pollux), Pollux, and Procyon. Regulus, heart of Leo, the Lion, is far to upper left of Jupiter.
  • Golden Arcturus is very high in SE to S sky, with Mars, Spica, and Saturn, from right to left, below it. Antares is the reddish twinkling star in SE, to lower left of steady Saturn. Venus first appears above our morning mid-twilight horizon around midmonth and climbs higher each morning at the same stage of twilight.
  • In mid-January, our Spaceship Earth is heading in the direction of Spica. In coming months, as Earth curves around the Sun, it will overtake the slower-moving outer planets: Jupiter in early January, Mars in early April, and Saturn before the middle of May. As a result, these planets, along with their background stars, will progress toward the western horizon in our morning sky, and will appear above our eastern horizon in the early evening sky as Earth passes each one in turn.
  • But Venus is an inner planet. It overtakes us on Jan. 11, as it passes between Earth and Sun. By Jan. 16 it appears 10° to the upper right of the rising Sun. By Jan. 23, this “angle of elongation” increases to 20°, and by month’s end to 29°. It will get no farther than 47° from the Sun at greatest elongation, which will be attained on March 22. If proof of Venus’ location in space is needed, examine it through binoculars and telescopes in January and February, when it’s backlighted, in crescent phase: less than one percent full through Jan. 14, increasing to 2 percent by Jan. 17, to 5 percent by Jan. 22, and 10 percent by Jan. 28.

Consider holding an early morning skywatch, perhaps in your schoolyard starting as early as 1-1/2 hours before sunrise. Solar system highlights include Jupiter and its four Galilean satellites, Saturn’s rings now tipped over 22° from edge-on, the crescent phase of Venus, and the tiny reddish disk of Mars. The best dates in January with the Moon visible occur in the week of Jan. 20-24, or 20-26 if the weekend is included. Even if you wait until the normal time of opening the school grounds, the Moon and Venus are excellent for daytime astronomy. If you fit the low-power eyepiece of your telescope with a single polarizing filter and rotate the eyepiece to darken the blue sky, Jan. 23 and 24 are prime dates.

In morning mid-twilight in January, bright blue-white Vega shines in ENE with fainter Deneb to its lower left. By midmonth Altair appears in east, completing the Summer Triangle.

Every year in mid-January, Altair is 30° due north of the midday Sun, making the star equally visible in morning and evening twilight, low in E at dawn and low in W at dusk. The entire Summer Triangle is visible at both those times, with Vega and Deneb higher and to the north of Altair.

The Moon passes all five bright planets this month. A nearly Full Moon will keep company with Jupiter from dusk until first light of dawn on the night of Jan. 14-15. An hour before sunup on the mornings of Jan. 22 and 23, watch the waning gibbous Moon leapfrog past Spica and the brighter reddish planet Mars just above that star well up in SSW. The Moon is very closely left of Spica on the morning of Jan. 23. The Moon appears at Last Quarter phase (half full) on the morning of Jan. 24, and on the next morning the fat crescent appears just below Saturn. Venus, by then a prominent morning “star” low in ESE, will appear to lower left of the waning crescent Moon an hour before sunrise on Jan. 29. The next morning, look for the last thin old Moon rising to lower left of Venus. Back in the evening sky on Jan. 31, the thin young crescent Moon will appear low in WSW at dusk, a few degrees to lower right of Mercury, which pays a brief visit to evening twilight skies in late January and early February.

Venus switches from evening to morning sky (with an overlap of a few days, when it is visible in both!); and, all this month, an even larger (in apparent diameter) Venus in crescent phase. On Jan. 1, Venus was 15° upper left of the setting Sun. As Venus traverses the near side of its orbit, it will pass only 5° north of the Sun on Jan. 10-11. By Jan. 31, Venus is 29° upper of the rising Sun.

Venus-Jupiter hide-and-seek. This month, these two planets appear in nearly opposite directions in the sky, because Earth overtakes Jupiter on Jan. 5 (creating an opposition of Jupiter, when the giant planet rises at sunset and sets at sunrise), and Venus overtakes Earth on Jan. 11 (creating an inferior conjunction of Venus, when Venus rises and sets nearly together with the Sun).

After Venus emerges into the morning sky, see four planets, in E to W order, Venus rising in ESE, Saturn in SSE, Mars in SSW, Jupiter setting in WNW. If you’re surrounded by mountains, you probably won’t spot Venus until after Jupiter has set. On Feb. 3 Mars will pass within 5° N of first-mag. Spica, the first of a colorful triple conjunction between the red planet and the blue-white star in 2014; the finale of the series occurs on July 13 at dusk. Mars moves on to pass Saturn on Aug. 25. On August 18 at dawn, Venus and Jupiter will appear only 0.3° apart! Quite a difference from this month, when these two most brilliant planets are avoiding each other, on opposite sides of the sky!

Robert D. Miller, who provided the twilight charts, did graduate work in Planetarium Science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy.


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Written by Robert Victor

Robert Victor

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs, CA. Robert is a member of CSTA.

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Accelerating into NGSS – A Statewide Rollout Series Now Accepting Registrations

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

Are you feeling behind on the implementation of NGSS? Then Accelerating into NGSS – the Statewide Rollout event – is right for you!

If you have not experienced Phases 1-4 of the Statewide Rollout, or are feeling behind with the implementation of NGSS, the Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout will provide you with the greatest hits from Phases 1-4!

Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout is a two-day training geared toward grade K-12 academic coaches, administrators, curriculum leads, and teacher leaders. Check-in for the two-day rollout begins at 7:30 a.m., followed by a continental breakfast. Sessions run from 8:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. on Day One and from 8:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Day Two.

Cost of training is $250 per attendee. Fee includes all materials, continental breakfast, and lunch on both days. It is recommended that districts send teams of four to six, which include at least one administrator. Payment can be made by check or credit card. If paying by check, registration is NOT complete until payment has been received. All payments must be received prior to the Rollout location date you are attending. Paying by credit card secures your seat at time of registration. No purchase orders accepted. No participant cancellation refunds.

For questions or more information, please contact Amy Kennedy at akennedy@sjcoe.net or (209) 468-9027.



MARCH 28-29, 2018
Host: San Mateo County Office of Education
Location: San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City

APRIL 10-11, 2018
Host: Orange County Office of Education
Location: Brandman University, Irvine

MAY 1-2, 2018
Host: Tulare County Office of Education
Location: Tulare County Office of Education, Visalia

MAY 3-4, 2018
Host: San Bernardino Superintendent of Schools
Location: West End Educational Service Center, Rancho Cucamonga

MAY 7-8, 2018
Host: Sacramento County Office of Education
Location: Sacramento County Office of Education Conference Center and David P. Meaney Education Center, Mather

JUNE 14-15, 2018
Host: Imperial County Office of Education
Location: Imperial Valley College, Imperial

Presented by the California Department of Education, California County Superintendents Educational Services Association/County Offices of Education, K-12 Alliance @WestEd, California Science Project, and the California Science Teachers Association.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

The Teaching and Learning Collaborative, Reflections from an Administrator

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

by Kelly Patchen

My name is Mrs. Kelly Patchen, and I am proud to be an elementary assistant principal working in the Tracy Unified School District (TUSD) at Louis Bohn and McKinley Elementary Schools. Each of the schools I support are Title I K-5 schools with about 450 students, a diverse student population, a high percentage of English Language Learners, and students living in poverty. We’re also lucky to be part of the CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative with the K-12 Alliance. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

2018 CSTA Conference Call for Proposals

Posted: Wednesday, January 17th, 2018

CSTA is pleased to announce that we are now accepting proposals for 90-minute workshops and three- and six-hour short courses for the 2018 California Science Education Conference. Workshops and short courses make up the bulk of the content and professional learning opportunities available at the conference. In recognition of their contribution, members who present a workshop or short course receive 50% off of their registration fees. Click for more information regarding proposals, or submit one today by following the links below.

Short Course Proposal

Workshop Proposal Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

CSTA’s New Administrator Facebook Group Page

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Holly Steele

The California Science Teachers Association’s mission is to promote high-quality science education, and one of the best practice’s we use to fulfill that mission is through the use of our Facebook group pages. CSTA hosts several closed and moderated Facebook group pages for specific grade levels, (Elementary, Middle, and High School), pages for district coaches and science education faculty, and the official CSTA Facebook page. These pages serve as an online resource for teachers and coaches to exchange teaching methods, materials, staying update on science events in California and asking questions. CSTA is happy to announce the creation of a 6th group page called, California Administrators Supporting Science. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Find Your Reason to Engage

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Jill Grace

I was recently reflecting on events in the news and remembered that several years ago, National Public Radio had a story about a man named Stéphane Hessel, a World War II French resistance fighter, Nazi concentration camp survivor, and contributor to the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The story focused on a book he had published, Time for Outrage (2010).

In it, Hessel makes the argument that the worst attitude is indifference:

“Who is in charge; who are the decision makers? It’s not always easy to discern. We’re not dealing with a small elite anymore, whose actions we can clearly identify. We are dealing with a vast, interdependent world that is interconnected in unprecedented ways. But there are unbearable things all around us. You have to look for them; search carefully. Open your eyes and you will see. This is what I tell young people: If you spend a little time searching, you will find your reasons to engage. The worst attitude is indifference. ‘There’s nothing I can do; I get by’ – adopting this mindset will deprive you of one of the fundamental qualities of being human: outrage.  Our capacity for protest is indispensable, as is our freedom to engage.”

His words make me take pause when I think of the status of science in the United States. A general “mistrust” of science is increasingly pervasive, as outlined in a New Yorker article from the summer of 2016. Learn More…

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Written by Jill Grace

Jill Grace

Jill Grace is a Regional Director for the K-12 Alliance and is President of CSTA.