Celestial Highlights, January Through Early February 2016
Posted: Thursday, January 14th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller
From March into August 2016, the bright planets, one by one, will enter the evening sky. But now, for a few weeks in January-February, early risers can enjoy all five bright planets before dawn. The waning Moon sweeps past four bright planets Dec. 31-Jan. 7, and past all five bright planets Jan. 27-Feb. 6.
One hour before sunrise, find brilliant Venus in SE, with Saturn nearby to its upper right Jan. 1-8 and lower left thereafter. These two planets are 8° apart on Jan. 1, closing to 5° on Jan. 4. On two spectacular mornings, they’ll appear in the same telescopic field, within 0.7° apart on Jan. 8, and 0.5° on Jan. 9. They’re still within 4° on Jan. 12, widening to 7° on Jan. 15, then to 15° on Jan. 22, and 25° on Jan. 31. Each day, Venus goes E against background stars by just over 1.2°, Saturn by only 0.1°, while Mars goes E about 0.5°. Watch Venus pass 6° N of first-magnitude Antares, heart of the Scorpion, on Jan. 7, and 3° N of Lambda in Sagittarius, the 3rd-mag. star marking the top of the Teapot, on Jan. 28. Steady Saturn is 6.3° to 7.5° from reddish twinkling Antares this month, and stays 6°-9° from that star throughout Saturn’s current apparition, ending when the planet sinks into evening twilight in November 2016.
Bright Jupiter, in SW to WSW an hour before sunup, begins retrograde on Jan. 8 and barely moves against stars this month, but it will shift 10° W in four months, Jan. 8 to May 9. This apparent temporary reversal of Jupiter’s motion is centered on the planet’s opposition and all-night visibility on night of March 7-8, when faster-moving Earth will overtake the giant planet. Mars, in SSE to S in this month’s morning sky, is 6° to 21° E of Spica. On Feb. 1, Mars will pass 1.1° N of 3rd-mag. Alpha Librae. Once Mercury emerges from Sun’s glare in late January, all five naked-eye planets will be on display, in order Me-Ve-Sa-Ma-Ju, in an impressive panorama across the southern morning sky.
See the Summer Triangle in Winter! Dusk: On what date this month will you last see Altair, southernmost star of the Summer Triangle, in evening sky? Dawn: On what date will you first spot Altair in morning? Each year around Jan. 15-16, as Earth follow its orbit around our Sun, the Sun appears to pass 30° south of Altair. That star is then above horizon much longer than the Sun and (along with the other Summer Triangle stars Vega and Deneb, higher and farther north) Altair can be seen at both dusk and dawn for several days. Try it!
More on morning planets: Jupiter (mag. –2.3 in mid-Jan.) with its big 0.7-arcminute disk, dark cloud belts, and four Galilean satellites, and Saturn (mag. +0.5) with its ring system now tipped 26° from edge-on, are favorites for telescopic viewing. They’re available together mornings in the early months of 2016, and evenings from late spring into summer. (If you’d like to schedule a session for your students when both Jupiter and Saturn are visible in 2016, you may want to consider a predawn viewing in January or February before an evening session in June to August, when sunset will occur quite late.) Bright Venus (mag. –4) in Jan. shrinks to 0.2’ (arcminute) across, while increasing from 77 percent to 85 percent illuminated. (Venus will pass behind the Sun in early June 2016.) Mars (mag. +1.3 to +0.8) starts 2016 as a tiny disk 0.1’ across, 90 percent illuminated. By opposition and closest approach in late May, Mars will triple in apparent size and match Jupiter in brilliance! Mercury brightens from mag. +1.2 to 0.0 at dawn in last ten days of January, and continues to brighten into February.
Saturday Jan. 10, Look for the waxing Moon within an hour after sunset each evening Jan. 10-23.
Thursday, Jan. 14, Mercury at inferior conjunction, as the planet goes between Earth and Sun, while passing north of the solar disk. At its next inferior conjunction, on the morning of May 9, there will be a transit of Mercury across Sun’s disk. During that event, a telescope fitted with a suitable solar filter over the front end will allow viewing of Mercury as a tiny black dot moving across the face of the Sun.
Sun. and Mon., Jan. 17 and 18, Venus-Mars are 45° apart in morning sky.
On Jan. 18, Ve-Sa-Ma-Ju span 90°. Ma-Ju are 45° apart.
Tues. Jan. 19: Moon’s leading dark edge, invisible in daylight, occults or covers Aldebaran, eye of Taurus the Bull, around sunset in California. Trailing bright edge of Moon uncovers star in early evening. Times of star’s disappearance and reappearance for Palm Springs, 5:06 p.m. and 6:16 p.m. PST; in the Bay Area, around 5:04 a.m. and 6:15 p.m. Use a telescope to watch the star disappear and reappear. Once the star reappears, check at various times during the evening and watch the Moon pull away from the star. Look again on Wednesday and Thursday evenings.
Sat. Jan. 23, one hour before sunrise
Moon and five naked-eye planets span 170°. Including bright zodiacal stars, in order of increasing distance W of Sun, we have: Mercury low in ESE; Venus in SE; Saturn with Antares 7° to its lower right; Mars in S; Spica in SSW; Jupiter and Regulus in SW to W; and nearly Full Moon low in WNW. This morning, Venus is midway between Mercury and Saturn, 16° from each. Also, find the “Twins”, Pollux and Castor, 12°-16° upper right of Moon. Mercury gets brighter and easier to see daily, and climbs highest in morning twilight around Feb. 1.
During Jan. 23-Feb. 7 in morning sky, watch the waning Moon go east against the zodiacal backdrop, posing near Regulus on Jan. 25 and 26, near Jupiter on Jan. 27 and 28, and just 4° north of Spica on Jan. 30. Mercury comes within 10° lower left of Venus on Jan. 28, and 7.5° on Jan. 31, when Moon, just over half full, appears about 10° upper right of Mars.
In early February, the Moon continues eastward, passing four more planets, while Mercury and Venus draw closer to each other. On Feb. 1, Mars appears within 3° lower right of the Moon, now just past Last Quarter phase and just under half full. An hour before sunrise on Feb. 1, five bright planets, Mercury-Venus-Saturn-Mars-Jupiter, in order from ESE to WSW, span 115°.
Mercury appears within 7° lower left of Venus during all of February, but both sink lower in twilight as that month progresses. They appear within 5° of each other during Feb. 6-21, and appear closest to each other, 4.0° apart, on Feb. 13. This approach without passing is called a quasi-conjunction, because neither planet overtakes the other. (As seen from Earth, the planets never share the same “x-coordinate”, either right ascension or celestial longitude, this time around.)
On Feb. 3, Saturn appears 4° below the Moon. Antares appears 9° lower right of the lunar crescent and 8° lower right of Saturn.
On Feb. 5, Venus appears within 9° to Moon’s lower left.
On Feb. 6, look for Mercury within 5° lower left of Venus and 3° lower right of a thin crescent Moon, only 5 percent full and just over 2 days before New. This morning the five naked-eye planets span an angle of 120° across our sky, one-third of the way around the circle of the zodiac.
On the morning of Feb. 7, Spaceship Earth is carrying us toward the planet Mars. Our faster-moving home planet will overtake the red planet in late May. Watch about 40-45 minutes before sunrise this morning for a last, very thin old crescent Moon, about 2 percent full, just risen in the east-southeast, about 17° lower left of Venus and 13° lower left of Mercury. New Moon, invisible near the Sun, occurs on Feb. 8 at 6:39 a.m. PST.
During Feb. 9-22, track the waxing Moon in the evening sky, within an hour after sunset. Another occultation of Aldebaran will take place just before moonset on the night of Feb. 15-16, shortly after 1:00 a.m. on the morning of Feb. 16.
Illustrations of events mentioned above appear in Sky Calendar. A sample diagram showing the five naked-eye planets on morning of January 25 is included with this article. To subscribe, visit www.abramsplanetarium.org/skycalendar/.
An activity, Modeling seasonal visibility of stars and visibility of the planets, to help students investigate visibility of bright planets and first magnitude stars, is available at the CSTA website. As stars and planets come and go in morning and evening skies and display beautiful pairings and groupings, students can model these changes and explain their observations with the aid of items provided: Two planet orbit charts, Mercury through Mars and Mercury through Saturn; a table of data for plotting planets on orbit charts (.docx file); and a and a sheet with questions on star and planet visibility in 2015-2016 (.docx).
Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs.
Robert D. Miller, who provided the twilight charts and the planet orbit charts, did graduate work in Planetarium Science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy.
Posted: Wednesday, October 12th, 2016
by Jessica Sawko
In June 2016 California submitted a waiver application to discontinue using the old CST (based on 1998 standards) and conduct two years of pilot and field tests (in spring 2017 and 2018, respectively) of the new science assessment designed to support our state’s current science standards (California Next Generation Science Standards (CA-NGSS) adopted in 2013). The waiver was requested because no student scores will be provided as a part of the pilot and field tests. The CDE received a response from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on September 30, 2016, which provides the CDE the opportunity to resubmit a revised waiver request within 60 days. The CDE will be revising the waiver request and resubmitting as ED suggested.
At its October 2016 North/South Assessment meetings CDE confirmed that there will be no administration of the old CST in the spring of 2017. (An archive of the meeting is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/ai/infomeeting.asp.) Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
by Carol Peterson
1) To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service, Google has put together a collection of virtual tours combining 360-degree video, panoramic photos and expert narration. It’s called “The Hidden Worlds of the National Parks” and is accessible right from the browser. You can choose from one of five different locales, including the Kenai Fjords in Alaska and Bryce Canyon in Utah, and get a guided “tour” from a local park ranger. Each one has a few virtual vistas to explore, with documentary-style voiceovers and extra media hidden behind clickable thumbnails. Ideas are included for use in classrooms. https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/25/google-offers-360-degree-tours-of-us-national-parks/. Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
CSTA is pleased to announce the winners of the 2016 CSTA Awards for Distinguished Contributions, Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, 2014 and 2015 PAEMST-Science recipients from California, and the 2016 California PAEMST Finalists. The following individuals and organizations will be honored during the 2016 California Science Education Conference on October 21- 23 in Palm Springs. This year’s group of awardees are truly outstanding. Please join us in congratulating them!
Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award
The Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award honors an individual who has made a significant contribution to science education in the state and who, through years of leadership and service, has truly made a positive impact on the quality of science teaching. This year’s recipient is John Keller, Ph.D. Dr. Keller is Associate Professor, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and Co-Director, Center for Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Education, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In her letter of recommendation, SDSU science education faculty and former CSTA board member Donna Ross wrote: “He brings people together who share the desire to make a difference in the development and implementation of programs for science teaching. Examples of these projects include the Math and Science Teaching Initiative (MSTI), Noyce Scholars Program, Western Regional Noyce Initiative, and the Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program.” Through his work, he has had a dramatic impact on science teacher education, both preservice and in-service, in California, the region, and the country. He developed and implemented the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program which aims to produce excellent K-12 STEM teachers by providing aspiring teachers with opportunities to do authentic research while helping them translate their research experience into classroom practice. SFSU faculty member Larry Horvath said it best in his letter:“John Keller exemplifies the best aspects of a scientist, science educator, and mentor. His contributions to science education in the state of California are varied, significant, and I am sure will continue well into the future.” Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Peter A’hearn
NGSS is a big shift. Teachers need to learn new content, figure out how this whole engineering thing relates to science, and develop new unit and lesson plans. How could NGSS possibly make life easier?
The idea that NGSS could make our lives easier came to me during the California State NGSS Rollout #1 Classroom Example lesson on chromatography. I have since done this lesson with high school chemistry students and it made me think back to having my own students do chromatography. I spent lots of time preparing to make sure the experiment went well and achieved the “correct” result. I pre-prepared the solutions and organized and prepped the materials. I re-wrote and re-wrote again the procedure so there was no way a kid could get it wrong. I spent 20 minutes before the lab modeling all of the steps in class, so there was no way to do it wrong. Except that it turns out there were many. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt
Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. Learn More…