January/February 2018 – Vol. 31 No. 2

Celestial Highlights, March Through June 2016

Posted: Monday, March 14th, 2016

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Planet rising and setting graphs by Jeffrey L. Hunt

From early March through early June 2016, Earth overtakes all three bright outer planets within 90 days, each planet reaching peak brilliance and all-night visibility: Jupiter in early March, Mars in late May, and Saturn in early June. For several months following these dates of their oppositions, each respective planet will remain conveniently visible in the evening sky…at last!

In late January and for much of February 2016, early risers enjoyed a wide panorama of all five naked-eye planets across the morning sky. By early March, Mercury, heading toward its Mar. 23 superior conjunction on the far side of the Sun, disappeared from view to lower left of Venus. Look before mid-March, and you might still catch Venus low in ESE and Jupiter low in west, while Saturn with brighter reddish Mars nearby to its right adorn the southern sky. Between that pair and a little lower, look for the reddish twinkling star Antares, heart of the Scorpion.

On mornings in March 2016, Venus and Jupiter sink toward opposite horizons, Venus heading toward its June 6 superior conjunction on the far side of the Sun, and Jupiter reaching opposition to the Sun on the morning of March 8 as Earth overtakes it. With Jupiter in the west, the Sun below the eastern horizon, and Saturn in the south just over 90° W of Sun, we visualize our counterclockwise revolution around the Sun and the forward motion of our Spaceship Earth nearly toward Saturn. Venus, moving faster, is leaving us behind, and we are passing Jupiter, causing it to drop from sight in our right (west) window.



Now we change the scene to the evening sky. At dusk on March 7 (earlier on same night), we have the Sun below our western horizon, and Jupiter visible in the east. Now we’re looking out the rear window of Spaceship Earth. On March 7, we’re moving away from a point in Taurus, about 8° ENE of Aldebaran. Faster moving Mercury will emerge from beyond the Sun and have the year’s most favorable evening apparition in the western sky at dusk in April, before it transits the Sun on May 9.

As we overtake the solar system’s three bright outer planets within a 3-month interval in 2016, they’ll appear at opposition in turn: Jupiter on the night of March 7, Mars on the night of May 21, and Saturn on the night of June 2. In each case, locate the point on the ecliptic 90° east of the Sun, and that’s quite close to the direction away from which Spaceship Earth is moving, at 30 km/sec. (In the morning sky, look at the point on the ecliptic 90° west of the Sun, and that’s very close to the direction toward which Spaceship Earth is heading.)

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Following is a selection of events we suggest teachers recommend to their students to observe in the sky.

2-letter abbreviations are used for the five naked-eye planets (Me for Mercury, Ve for Venus, etc.) Also, GEE = greatest elongation of Mercury east of Sun, visible in western evening sky; UL = upper left; etc.

Angular distances between objects are not those at the time of their conjunction as listed in almanacs, nor are they the worldwide minimum separations. They are instead valid for the suggested time of observation for southern California, at dawn or dusk midtwilight, which we define as the moment when the Sun is 9° below the horizon.

Planets in evening mid-twilight, March-June 2016

Mar  21 Moon 2° from Ju, now 165° E of Sun. Note Moon’s phase

each month through Sept. 2, as it passes Ju.

Apr   8 First crescent Moon, about 39 hours after New, 9° UL of Me.

Apr 17 Me at GEE Apr 17-18, 20°, year’s most favorable evening appearance.  Mercury is brighter before this date than after, because it is a backlighted, fading crescent after it passes GEE. Me will transit the Sun’s disk on May 9. (Information on Mercury’s transit and how to safely observe it will appear in next month’s article.)

Also on Apr. 17, Moon 3° LR of Ju. Within an hour after sunset from mid-April nightly into June, record in your logbook which stars of the Winter Hexagon you can spot. In clockwise order starting with Sirius, the Hexagon includes Procyon, Pollux (and Castor, not plotted on the chart), Capella, Aldebaran, and Rigel, with Betelgeuse inside. Which star will drop out on the earliest date? Which of the stars of the Hexagon will still be visible at the beginning of June? Find out by observation! You will be observing the seasonal change of the positions of stars in the sky, a consequence of the Earth’s revolution around the Sun.

May 7 First Moon, about 32 hours old, low, az ~ 285°.

May 14 Moon 4° LR of Ju. Note Ma just rising az ~ 117°.

May 21 Ma at opposition tonight (note great brilliance, equal to Jupiter’s!), 6° LR of Full Moon.

Ma retrograding near Delta in head of Scorpius. Sa rising az ~ 116°, 10° LL of Moon.

May 22 Moon, past Full, rising < 4° left of Sa. Note Antares rising 9° LL of Ma and 7°-8° right of Sa.

Jun  2 Sa at opposition tonight. Spaceship Earth is passing between Sa and Sun. As we overtake Sa, we are moving almost directly away from Ju. As we look toward Ju, we are facing out the “rear window” of Spaceship Earth.

Jun  6 Young Moon, age 24-25 hours,  low in WNW, 15° below Pollux.

Jun 11 Moon, nearly at FQ, appears 5° left of Ju.

Jun 16, 17 Moon leapfrogs Ma June 16-17.

Jun 18 Moon appears 3° UL of Sa.

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Robert D. Miller for his twilight sky charts, to Jeffrey Hunt for his graphs showing the rising and setting times of the planets, and to John French and Shannon Schmoll at Abrams Planetarium for helping to program the following Digistar 5 planetarium demo.  

A youtube video showing a view of the morning twilight sky from mid-October 2015 until early March 2016, followed by a view of the evening twilight sky from early March through late October 2016 is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xp1bvQZDQ1Y


Illustrations of events mentioned above appear in Sky Calendar. For a sample issue and how to subscribe, visit www.abramsplanetarium.org/skycalendar/

An activity, Modeling seasonal visibility of stars and visibility of the planets, to help students investigate visibility of bright planets and first magnitude stars, is available at the CSTA website. As stars and planets come and go in morning and evening skies and display beautiful pairings and groupings, students can model these changes and explain their observations with the aid of items provided: Two planet orbit charts, Mercury through Mars and Mercury through Saturn; a table of data for plotting planets on orbit charts (.docx file); and a sheet with questions on star and planet visibility in 2015-2016 (.docx).

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs.

Robert D. Miller, who provided the twilight charts and the planet orbit charts, did graduate work in Planetarium Science and later astronomy and computer science at Michigan State University and remains active in research and public outreach in astronomy.

Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt is a retired planetarium director living in the Chicago, Illinois area.  He has taught astronomy and sky watching to all ages.  He learned the tricks of the trade from Robert C. Victor when he studied astronomy education at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University.  Jeff writes an astronomy blog at jeffreylhunt.wordpress.com.  Follow him on Twitter at @jeff_hunt.

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Written by Robert Victor

Robert Victor

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs, CA. Robert is a member of CSTA.

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Accelerating into NGSS – A Statewide Rollout Series Now Accepting Registrations

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

Are you feeling behind on the implementation of NGSS? Then Accelerating into NGSS – the Statewide Rollout event – is right for you!

If you have not experienced Phases 1-4 of the Statewide Rollout, or are feeling behind with the implementation of NGSS, the Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout will provide you with the greatest hits from Phases 1-4!

Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout is a two-day training geared toward grade K-12 academic coaches, administrators, curriculum leads, and teacher leaders. Check-in for the two-day rollout begins at 7:30 a.m., followed by a continental breakfast. Sessions run from 8:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. on Day One and from 8:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Day Two.

Cost of training is $250 per attendee. Fee includes all materials, continental breakfast, and lunch on both days. It is recommended that districts send teams of four to six, which include at least one administrator. Payment can be made by check or credit card. If paying by check, registration is NOT complete until payment has been received. All payments must be received prior to the Rollout location date you are attending. Paying by credit card secures your seat at time of registration. No purchase orders accepted. No participant cancellation refunds.

For questions or more information, please contact Amy Kennedy at akennedy@sjcoe.net or (209) 468-9027.



MARCH 28-29, 2018
Host: San Mateo County Office of Education
Location: San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City

APRIL 10-11, 2018
Host: Orange County Office of Education
Location: Brandman University, Irvine

MAY 1-2, 2018
Host: Tulare County Office of Education
Location: Tulare County Office of Education, Visalia

MAY 3-4, 2018
Host: San Bernardino Superintendent of Schools
Location: West End Educational Service Center, Rancho Cucamonga

MAY 7-8, 2018
Host: Sacramento County Office of Education
Location: Sacramento County Office of Education Conference Center and David P. Meaney Education Center, Mather

JUNE 14-15, 2018
Host: Imperial County Office of Education
Location: Imperial Valley College, Imperial

Presented by the California Department of Education, California County Superintendents Educational Services Association/County Offices of Education, K-12 Alliance @WestEd, California Science Project, and the California Science Teachers Association.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

The Teaching and Learning Collaborative, Reflections from an Administrator

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

by Kelly Patchen

My name is Mrs. Kelly Patchen, and I am proud to be an elementary assistant principal working in the Tracy Unified School District (TUSD) at Louis Bohn and McKinley Elementary Schools. Each of the schools I support are Title I K-5 schools with about 450 students, a diverse student population, a high percentage of English Language Learners, and students living in poverty. We’re also lucky to be part of the CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative with the K-12 Alliance. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

2018 CSTA Conference Call for Proposals

Posted: Wednesday, January 17th, 2018

CSTA is pleased to announce that we are now accepting proposals for 90-minute workshops and three- and six-hour short courses for the 2018 California Science Education Conference. Workshops and short courses make up the bulk of the content and professional learning opportunities available at the conference. In recognition of their contribution, members who present a workshop or short course receive 50% off of their registration fees. Click for more information regarding proposals, or submit one today by following the links below.

Short Course Proposal

Workshop Proposal Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

CSTA’s New Administrator Facebook Group Page

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Holly Steele

The California Science Teachers Association’s mission is to promote high-quality science education, and one of the best practice’s we use to fulfill that mission is through the use of our Facebook group pages. CSTA hosts several closed and moderated Facebook group pages for specific grade levels, (Elementary, Middle, and High School), pages for district coaches and science education faculty, and the official CSTA Facebook page. These pages serve as an online resource for teachers and coaches to exchange teaching methods, materials, staying update on science events in California and asking questions. CSTA is happy to announce the creation of a 6th group page called, California Administrators Supporting Science. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Find Your Reason to Engage

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Jill Grace

I was recently reflecting on events in the news and remembered that several years ago, National Public Radio had a story about a man named Stéphane Hessel, a World War II French resistance fighter, Nazi concentration camp survivor, and contributor to the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The story focused on a book he had published, Time for Outrage (2010).

In it, Hessel makes the argument that the worst attitude is indifference:

“Who is in charge; who are the decision makers? It’s not always easy to discern. We’re not dealing with a small elite anymore, whose actions we can clearly identify. We are dealing with a vast, interdependent world that is interconnected in unprecedented ways. But there are unbearable things all around us. You have to look for them; search carefully. Open your eyes and you will see. This is what I tell young people: If you spend a little time searching, you will find your reasons to engage. The worst attitude is indifference. ‘There’s nothing I can do; I get by’ – adopting this mindset will deprive you of one of the fundamental qualities of being human: outrage.  Our capacity for protest is indispensable, as is our freedom to engage.”

His words make me take pause when I think of the status of science in the United States. A general “mistrust” of science is increasingly pervasive, as outlined in a New Yorker article from the summer of 2016. Learn More…

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Written by Jill Grace

Jill Grace

Jill Grace is a Regional Director for the K-12 Alliance and is President of CSTA.