September/October 2017 – Vol. 30 No. 1

Creating Lessons–NGSS Style

Posted: Tuesday, September 15th, 2015

by Jeff Orlinsky

As the new school year approaches, it is time to begin thinking about our science lessons. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) require a different approach to lesson planning. It is my goal in this article to show you one way to approach designing a lesson. It is important to know there are other techniques and lesson models that incorporate the NGSS model. I am going to share how I approach designing a lesson using a model developed by Achieve to support NGSS implementation. I used the chart provided to set up my lesson. You could also develop whole units using a similar approach.

This lesson took me about an hour to prepare. I only used materials that my students would have access to, such as 2-liter bottles for the spirometers. I envision this lesson could take 1 to 2 weeks. (view larger image)

orlinskyWhere to Start:

For my unit on lung volumes, exercise, and homoeostasis, I found an interesting article: “Childhood Asthma Linked to Freeway Pollution.”

My Guiding Question: How can we measure and identify the lung volumes and breathing rates of a person with and without asthma?

Finding the DCI, the CCC, and the Practices

The DCIs:

  • Multicellular organisms have a hierarchical structural organization, in which any one system is made up of numerous parts and is itself a component of the next level. (HS-LS1-2)

This unit will cover the human respiratory system, as well as comparative anatomy.

  • Feedback mechanisms maintain a living system’s internal conditions within certain limits and mediate behaviors, allowing it to remain alive and functional even as external conditions change within some range. Feedback mechanisms can encourage (through positive feedback) or discourage (negative feedback) what is going on inside the living system. (HS-LS1-3)

This unit will cover the role of diseases on the human respiratory system, and the role of the nervous system on regulation of respiration.

The CCCs:

  • Structure and Function
  • Stability and Change

The Science and Engineering Practices:

  • Developing and Using Models
  • Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
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Identify the performance task of the lesson

For the Unit:

  • HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms.
  • HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.

For the Lesson:

  • Using and interpreting pulmonary function graphs to determine if a patient has asthma or COPD.
  • Students make a Spirometer out of 2 liter bottle.
  • Students develop a set of procedures to measure their respiration rates or respiration volumes before, during and after exercise.
  • Students calculate lung volumes based on height and mass, and compare their results to their observed measurements.

Determine the Evidence Statements

  • Pulmonary Function Graphs
Proficient Approaching Proficient Basic Needs to improve
Correctly identifies the lung ailment based on calculations from the graph. Uses inferences to demonstrate understanding Uses inferences to demonstrate understanding Correctly identifies the healthy lung pulmonary function graphs and identifies the ailments based on “they’re different” Students may correctly identify the graphs with the ailments but make calculation errors.
  • Procedures for measuring their lung volumes
Proficient Approaching Proficient Basic Needs to improve
Student designs a set of procedures that include controls, independent and dependent variables. Hypothesis presented with reasons for the prediction Student designs a set of procedures that include controls, independent and dependent variables. Poor hypothesis given Student designs a set of procedures that include independent and dependent variables. Hypothesis and controls are incomplete Student designs a set of procedures that includes only one person doing the experiment
  • Calculating lung volumes
Proficient Approaching Proficient Basic Needs to improve
Students can correctly calculate their lung volumes from three different sources and find the average lung volume. Students can correctly calculate their lung volumes from three different sources and present their answers showing all three values. Students can correctly calculate their lung volumes from one source. Student attempts to calculate the lung volumes; makes calculation errors.

Classroom integration:

Introduction

  • Have the students read the article using close reading techniques.
  • Students discuss in groups how scientists collected the data used to reach the conclusion found in the article.
  • Ask students to explain asthma and COPD and how it affects the lungs.
  • Ask: How can we measure our lung volumes? How would asthma and COPD affect the lung volumes?

Introduce the project making a spirometer.

  • Students work on making a working spirometer.
  • Students develop a set of procedures to find the total forced vital capacity of their lungs.

Using mass and height to find your lung volumes.

  • Hand-out the “Finding Your Lung Volume” worksheet.
  • Have students share their results with each other.

Discuss some possible reasons they would be different.

Gender
Age
Height
Mass

Have the students compare their calculated lung volumes to their spirometer data.

  • Analyze the data
  • Create comparative graphs.

Be prepared to share your results and conclusion with your classmates.

  • Lecture on lungs and diseases of the lung

Introduction of the Pulmonary Lung Function Graphs.

  • Hand out Pulmonary Lung Function graphs of several patients.
  • Students need to determine the diagnosis based on the graphs.

Experiment

  • Students design an experiment to measure the effect of exercise on lung volumes.
  • Introduction to homeostasis and lung functions.

Run the lesson and evaluate the lesson.

Written by Jeff Orlinsky

Jeff Orlinsky

Jeff Orlinsky teaches science at Warren High School and is a member of CSTA.

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