May/June 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 7

Defining Scientific Literacy for Informal Science Education

Posted: Wednesday, December 14th, 2016

by Martin Smith, Steven Worker, Andrea Ambrose, Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty, Kelley Brian, Emily Schoenfelder


Scientific literacy is an important educational and societal goal (e.g., AAAS, 1990). Scientific literacy targets socially responsible and competent citizenry in that individuals should be able to participate in and contribute to a society (Hurd, 1998). While there is agreement that advancing scientific literacy among K-12 youth is important, measuring the construct has been problematic since there is no consensus about the meaning or the component parts of what it means to be scientifically literate (DeBoer, 2000). Although “a veritable deluge of definitions” (Roberts, 2007, p. 729) have been developed, historically, most definitions of scientific literacy have focused on generalized knowledge related to major science disciplines, principally content and processes germane to scientists (Roberts, 2007). These “within science” definitions represent a Vision I perspective of scientific literacy (Roberts, 2007). In contrast, a Vision II perspective focuses on situations positioned from the viewpoint of the citizen and concentrates on science-related issues or circumstances individuals may encounter in their lives.

Despite a lack of agreement as to a common meaning of scientific literacy, defining the construct or describing its component parts is critical for science program development (Roberts, 2007). The absence of a definition or an agreed-upon understanding makes it challenging to develop and compare programs, evaluate pedagogical strategies, and perform outcome evaluation. However, because science learning is a function of context, attempting to reach consensus on a universal definition is imprudent (Roberts, 2007). Therefore, any definition of scientific literacy “…should be conceptualized broadly enough…to pursue the goals that are most suitable for [a given] situation” (DeBoer, 2000, p. 582).

In informal science education programs – also referred to as out-of-school time or non-formal – science learning is contextualized and individualized (Falk, Storksdieck, & Dierking, 2007). Persons within a community develop “an understanding of a specific area of science because of his or her unique, personal set of needs and desires to know about this area of science” (p. 458). This is where individuals self-select activities that meet their needs and interests and where they experience excitement in learning about phenomena in the natural world. Informal science programs are guided by varying societal priorities and issues, ranging from local concerns in community-based programs to matters of significance at the state or national level among larger organizations (e.g., 4-H, Boys and Girls Clubs). Understanding this makes it clear that a Vision II perspective provides informal programs a platform to help define scientific literacy. A Vision II perspective allows the component parts that comprise scientific literacy to be specified broadly enough that they address diverse societal issues, yet provide opportunities to develop science programming that is culturally relevant and specific to individual programmatic needs.

Anchor Points of Scientific Literacy for Informal Science Education

We developed a definition of scientific literacy for the context of California 4-H Youth Development that is also relevant for other informal science education programs. Through a systematic, analytical literature review (Steward, 2004), four anchor points were identified as the component parts to define scientific literacy (See Figure 1). The anchor points include science content, scientific reasoning skills, interest and attitude, and contribution through applied participation. Framed conceptually and metaphorically, these anchor points provide guideposts for curriculum and program development, teaching, and evaluation, and are flexible enough for adaptation to local needs and situations.

Figure 1. Anchor Points of Scientific Literacy for Informal Science Education

Figure 1. Anchor Points of Scientific Literacy for Informal Science Education

Contribution to the teaching and learning of science in informal contexts

Defining scientific literacy is critical for program development and evaluation. Emphasizing a Vision II approach (Roberts, 2007) provides opportunities for the systematic advancement of organizational efforts using an asset-based approach to understanding science. This strategy emphasizes relevant science knowledge that individuals learn for different reasons, including interest, need, and curiosity. The anchor points help frame the development and adaptation of curriculum materials; shape the content and design of educator professional development; and utilize consistent outcome goals for program evaluation.

Curriculum: Curriculum development and adaption can be driven by content associated with issues and situations important to clientele and geographic regions (anchor point I), while all curriculum materials, regardless of science content area, can attend to anchor points II (scientific reasoning skills), III (interest and attitudes), and IV (contribution through applied participation).

Professional Development: Secondly, utilizing a Vision II approach to defining scientific literacy provides the opportunity to design educator professional development opportunities that incorporate specific features considered critical to advancing the knowledge and skills of science educators: emphasis on subject matter knowledge (e.g., Penuel et al., 2007), and linking professional development opportunities to broader organizational goals (e.g., Loucks-Horsley et al., 2003).

Learning Assessment: Finally, the four anchor points provide a framework for consistent, measurable learning goals that can be used for evaluation. Summative evaluation can target the four anchor points through the use of appropriate evaluation methods. Specifically, the assessment of content understanding (anchor point I) and contributions made by learners through applied participation (anchor point IV) can be designed around the specific environmental, social, and economic issues. The assessment of scientific reasoning skills (anchor point II) and interest and attitudes (anchor point III) can be measured in all content areas and will provide the opportunity for comparisons across programs.


The definition of scientific literacy using four anchors is adaptable for use by other informal science programs, including local and national community-based organizations. Each program addresses particular needs relative to the youth populations they serve, thus the “focus-on-situations” approach could be modified and positioned around relevant situational issues. Specifically, anchor points I (Science Content) and IV (Contribution through Applied Participation) provide for adaptability within different contexts. Individual programs could identify relevant content and associated service learning projects that provide youth opportunities for applied participation. In comparison, anchor points II (Scientific Reasoning Skills) and III (Interest and Attitudes) are broad constructs that could remain consistent across diverse subject matter areas within different contexts.

Read the full paper at California Agriculture at or view the poster at


American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1990). Science: For all Americans. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

DeBoer, G. (2000).  Scientific literacy: Another look at its historical and contemporary meanings and its relationship to science education reform.  Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(6), 582- 601.

Falk, J. H., Storksdieck, M., & Dierking, L. D. (2007). Investigating public science interest and understanding: Evidence for the importance of free-choice learning. Public Understanding of Science, 16, 455-469.

Hurd, P. D. (1998). Scientific literacy: New minds for a changing world. Science Education, 82, 407–416.

Loucks-Horsley, S., Love, N., Stiles, K., Mundry, S., & Hewson, P. (2003). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Corwin Press.

Penuel, W., Fishman, B., Yamaguchi, R., & Gallagher, L. (2007, December). What makes professional development effective? Strategies that foster curriculum implementation. American Educational Research Journal, 44(4), 921-958.. Roberts, D. A. (2007). Scientific literacy/Science literacy. In S.K. Abell & N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Science Education (pp. 729-780).

Roberts, D. A. (2007). Scientific literacy/Science literacy. In S.K. Abell & N.G. Lederman (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Science Education (pp. 729-780).

Steward, B. (2004). Writing a literature review. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67(11), 495-500.

Martin Smith ( is a Specialist in Cooperative Extension, and Steven Worker ( is a 4-H Youth Development Advisor.

Andrea Ambrose is a Director of Development Services, and Lynn Schmitt-McQuitty is the 4-H Youth Development Advisor and County Director.

Kelley Brian is the Youth, Families and Communities Advisor, and Emily Schoenfelder is the 4-H Youth Development Advisor.

All are a part of the University of California, Agricultural and Natural Resources, 4-H Youth Development Program. In addition, Steven, Martin, and Lynn are members of CSTA.

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy:

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Participate in Chemistry Education Research Study, Earn $500-800 Dollars!

Posted: Tuesday, May 9th, 2017

WestEd, a non-profit educational research agency, has been funded by the US Department of Education to test a new molecular modeling kit, Happy Atoms. Happy Atoms is an interactive chemistry learning experience that consists of a set of physical atoms that connect magnetically to form molecules, and an app that uses image recognition to identify the molecules that you create with the set. WestEd is conducting a study around the effectiveness of using Happy Atoms in the classroom, and we are looking for high school chemistry teachers in California to participate.

As part of the study, teachers will be randomly assigned to either the treatment group (who uses Happy Atoms) or the control group (who uses Happy Atoms at a later date). Teachers in the treatment group will be asked to use the Happy Atoms set in their classrooms for 5 lessons over the course of the fall 2017 semester. Students will complete pre- and post-assessments and surveys around their chemistry content knowledge and beliefs about learning chemistry. WestEd will provide access to all teacher materials, teacher training, and student materials needed to participate.

Participating teachers will receive a stipend of $500-800. You can read more information about the study here:

Please contact Rosanne Luu at or 650.381.6432 if you are interested in participating in this opportunity, or if you have any questions!

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

2018 Science Instructional Materials Adoption Reviewer Application

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

The California Department of Education and State Board of Education are now accepting applications for reviewers for the 2018 Science Instructional Materials Adoption. The application deadline is 3:00 pm, July 21, 2017. The application is comprehensive, so don’t wait until the last minute to apply.

On Tuesday, May 9, 2017, State Superintendent Tom Torlakson forwarded this recruitment letter to county and district superintendents and charter school administrators.

Review panel members will evaluate instructional materials for use in kindergarten through grade eight, inclusive, that are aligned with the California Next Generation Science Content Standards for California Public Schools (CA NGSS). Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Lessons Learned from the NGSS Early Implementer Districts

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

On March 31, 2017, Achieve released two documents examining some lessons learned from the California K-8 Early Implementation Initiative. The initiative began in August 2014 and was developed by the K-12 Alliance at WestEd, with close collaborative input on its design and objectives from the State Board of Education, the California Department of Education, and Achieve.

Eight (8) traditional school districts and two (2) charter management organizations were selected to participate in the initiative, becoming the first districts in California to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Those districts included Galt Joint Union Elementary, Kings Canyon Joint Unified, Lakeside Union, Oakland Unified, Palm Springs Unified, San Diego Unified, Tracy Joint Unified, Vista Unified, Aspire, and High Tech High.

To more closely examine some of the early successes and challenges experienced by the Early Implementer LEAs, Achieve interviewed nine of the ten participating districts and compiled that information into two resources, focusing primarily on professional learning and instructional materials. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Using Online Simulations to Support the NGSS in Middle School Classrooms

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

by Lesley Gates, Loren Nikkel, and Kambria Eastham

Middle school teachers in Kings Canyon Unified School District (KCUSD), a CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative district, have been diligently working on transitioning to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) integrated model for middle school. This year, the teachers focused on building their own knowledge of the Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs). They have been gathering and sharing ideas at monthly collaborative meetings as to how to make sure their students are not just learning about science but that they are actually doing science in their classrooms. Students should be planning and carrying out investigations to gather data for analysis in order to construct explanations. This is best done through hands-on lab experiments. Experimental work is such an important part of the learning of science and education research shows that students learn better and retain more when they are active through inquiry, investigation, and application. A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011) notes, “…learning about science and engineering involves integration of the knowledge of scientific explanations (i.e., content knowledge) and the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Thus the framework seeks to illustrate how knowledge and practice must be intertwined in designing learning experiences in K-12 Science Education” (pg. 11).

Many middle school teachers in KCUSD are facing challenges as they begin implementing these student-driven, inquiry-based NGSS science experiences in their classrooms. First, many of the middle school classrooms at our K-8 school sites are not designed as science labs. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the NGSS Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

Celestial Highlights: May – July 2017

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

May Through July 2017 with Web Resources for the Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graphs of planet rising and setting times by Jeffrey L. Hunt.

In spring and summer 2017, Jupiter is the most prominent “star” in the evening sky, and Venus, even brighter, rules the morning. By mid-June, Saturn rises at a convenient evening hour, allowing both giant planets to be viewed well in early evening until Jupiter sinks low in late September. The Moon is always a crescent in its monthly encounters with Venus, but is full whenever it appears near Jupiter or Saturn in the eastern evening sky opposite the Sun. (In 2017, Full Moon is near Jupiter in April, Saturn in June.) At intervals of 27-28 days thereafter, the Moon appears at a progressively earlier phase at each pairing with the outer planet until its final conjunction, with Moon a thin crescent, low in the west at dusk. You’ll see many beautiful events by just following the Moon’s wanderings at dusk and dawn in the three months leading up to the solar eclipse. Learn More…

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Written by Robert Victor

Robert Victor

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs, CA. Robert is a member of CSTA.