January/February 2018 – Vol. 31 No. 2

Effective Formative Assessment: Gots and Needs

Posted: Monday, December 3rd, 2012

by Bethany Dixon

How do you use formative assessments to increase student achievement and drive curriculum pacing in your classroom? Assessment that informs instruction is critical for effective teaching, but time constraints and student engagement for an assessment that “doesn’t count” can be obstacles that are difficult to overcome. How can teachers possibly give timely, effective feedback on a daily basis while keeping their plans nimble and students engaged? At the AP Biology Leadership Academy this summer, Brooke Bourdelat-Parks from BSCS gave research-based, classroom-tested, and easy-to-implement strategies that can help you improve your formative assessments whether you teach 2nd graders or 2nd-year graduate students.

The Strategy: “Gots and Needs

Time Required:

Initial implementation:  10 Minutes (in a full-inclusion high school class: adjust for modeling and practice at different levels)

Additional implementations: 1 minute for student participation, 3 minutes for teacher review, 3 minutes the next class day.

How it works: Grammar of the title aside, this is my new favorite way to take the academic vitals of a class. “Gots and Needs” is a fast way to grab a formative assessment as students exit your room and the sticky note process makes it easy to grade and give next-day feedback.

Materials and Methods: Each student will need two sticky notes. On the first sticky note each student writes down one thing that they “Got” from today’s lesson. On the second sticky note students write down one thing they “Need” to improve their understanding of the topic. On the way out the door, students stick their “Got” on one location and their “Need” to another (e.g. I use two posters—“Gots” on the DNA poster, “Needs” on the Regulation poster—both are by the door on the way out).

For the next part I use an open file folder with the tab labeled for each class. I take the notes off the wall beginning with “Gots” on one side of my folder. Ideally, many students “Got” the same thing out of the class, something related to your objective written in their own words without prompting. “Gots” should be focused around a central topic. As I pull each one off, I stick similar ones together until I have three or four that cover the range of ideas well. I pull one sticky for myself and write down three bullet points that include students’ own words and recycle the rest. (Yes, as long as your school recycles mixed paper, according to the EPA, sticky notes are okay in the bin!) Next, I pull “Needs” and do the same thing, but these may be all over the place in terms of ideas because of the varying backgrounds and needs of your students. If you see distinct clusters, this is an indication of an instructional opportunity that should help your planning/intervention.

The next day after your bell-ringer or intro, you have a built-in, three-minute spiral review that dramatically increases student ownership in the classroom. Start by sharing their success: this is what YOU said that you “Got” yesterday in class (“Oh we learned something! I remember that!”). Next address their needs: “My teacher listens to us!” or, “Wow, I remember writing that yesterday!” Spending three minutes going over identified misunderstandings provides students with an opportunity to quickly correct their mistakes before you build on a topic that might have been difficult or needed reinforcement.

Research:

According to NSTA and NCATE’s 2012 NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation, (http://www.nsta.org/pd/ncate/docs/KnowledgeBaseSupporting2012Standards.pdf) “The National Science Education Standards stated, “Science distinguishes itself from other ways of knowing and from other bodies of knowledge through the use of empirical standards, logical arguments, and skepticism (NRC, 1996, p. 201). It becomes necessary for the teacher to assess in order to determine how the student is thinking. “As students develop and … understand more science concepts and processes, their explanations should become more sophisticated … frequently reflecting a rich scientific knowledge base, evidence of logic, higher levels of analysis, and greater tolerance of criticism and uncertainty” (NRC, 1996, p. 117). As the student and teacher work together to correct misconceptions and build a more accurate and deep understanding of science, the skills learned become as important as the science itself (Atkin, 2002).”

Determining how students are thinking in a timely manner with enough foresight to adjust instruction is difficult in practice. Giving quality feedback takes time, and between Thanksgiving and Holiday Break, “time” is the ugliest of four-letter words. Adding simple-to-implement formative assessments like “Gots and Needs” helps students by increasing their metacognition (“What did I “get” today? What do I “need?”), giving them another point of contact with the  material (putting it on the sticky note), and contributing to their feelings of “belonging” to a classroom of active learners (“Others “got” or “needed” the same things I did!”).

The Trials:

I wouldn’t send you into the trenches without a research-backed, workshop-utilized strategy that I have personally used. Here are a few ways I’ve managed to wreck and reconcile “Gots and Needs” in my classroom.

  1. Two sticky notes per student: putting them on one seemed to save paper but ended up being a sorting nightmare because I couldn’t effectively separate them.
  2. One folder per class, separate each classes’ sticky notes. I tried to put all “Gots” and “Needs” for all three sections of general biology up at one time and visit it at the end of the day. This failed miserably because I couldn’t tell if students “Got” things overall…or if it was one class…or if a whole class “Needed” something or just a few students across different classes. Save the headache: separate folders, separate posters, separate classes.
  3. No names: really. Students are more likely to write candidly and honestly when they know you aren’t going to punish them for their candor. Swallow the anxiety, recycle the snarky statements (if you get them), and enjoy the positive feedback knowing that it wasn’t coerced. The first time I did this was terrifying, but it has been both confidence-boosting and humbling to see more realistic feedback. Re-wording a frustrated student response into a best-intentioned “Need” and reading it out loud to the class can go a long way into building relationships with students who normally feel marginalized.

Short and Sweet:

“Gots and Needs,” took the place of using a “Ticket out the door” for my classroom because it’s easier to implement. Instead of having a stack of responses to grade every day, I now have a poster of sticky notes that are succinct and require almost no grading time. Feedback is automatic and takes place the next day without having to spend any additional teacher time, other than what it takes to peel the sticky notes off the wall and sorting them. Because of this strategy, student participation in formative assessment has increased dramatically and student metacognition is boosted. When a lesson is successful, “Gots” are focused around a central theme and “Needs” vary. Using this method helps to adjust pacing without major overhauling of your instructional day.

If you have any questions, comments, or suggestions please feel free to email me at bdixon@rocklinacademy.org.

Links:

BSCS: http://www.bscs.org/about

NSTA/NCATE Knowledge Base Supporting  2012 Standards: http://www.nsta.org/pd/ncate/docs/KnowledgeBaseSupporting2012Standards.pdf

EPA: http://www.epa.gov/osw/conserve/materials/paper/faqs.htm#staples

Citations:

Atkin, J. M (2002). Using assessment to help students learn. In R. W. Bybee (Ed), Learning science and the science of learning. (pp. 97-104), Arlington, VA: NSTA Press.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA). 2012.NSTA Standards for Science Teacher Preparation.

National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the national science education standards. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press

Written by Bethany Dixon

Bethany Dixon is a science teacher at Western Sierra Collegiate Academy, is a CSTA Publications Committee Member, and is a member of CSTA.

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California Science Test Academy for Educators

Posted: Thursday, February 15th, 2018

California Science Test Academy for Educators

To support implementation of the California Science Test (CAST), the California Department of Education is partnering with Educational Testing Service and WestEd to offer a one-day CAST Academy for local educational agency (LEA) science educators, to be presented at three locations in California from 8:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. As an alternative to traveling, LEA teams can participate virtually via WebEx on one of the dates listed below.

The dates and locations for the CAST Academy are as follows:

  • Monday, April 23, 2018—Sacramento
  • Wednesday, April 25, 2018—Fresno
  • Thursday, April 26, 2018—Irvine

The CAST Academy will help participants develop a deeper understanding of the assessment design and expectations of the CAST. The academy also will provide information and activities designed to assist educators in their implementation of the California Next Generation Science Standards and three-dimensional learning to help them gain an understanding of how these new science assessment item types can inform teaching and learning. The CAST Academy dates above are intended for school and district science instructional leaders, including teacher leaders, teacher trainers, and instructional coaches. Additional trainings will be offered at a later date specifically for county staff. In addition, curriculum, professional development, and assessment leaders would benefit from this training.

A $100 registration fee will be charged for each person attending the in-person training. Each virtual team participating via WebEx will be charged $100 for up to 10 participants through one access point. Each workshop will have the capacity to accommodate a maximum of 50 virtual teams. Each virtual team will need to designate a lead, who is responsible for organizing the group locally. Registration and payment must be completed online at http://www.cvent.com/d/6tqg8k.

For more information regarding the CAST Academy, please contact Elizabeth Dilke, Program Coordinator, Educational Testing Service, by phone at 916-403-2407 or by e‑mail at caasppworkshops@ets.org.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Accelerating into NGSS – A Statewide Rollout Series Now Accepting Registrations

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

Are you feeling behind on the implementation of NGSS? Then Accelerating into NGSS – the Statewide Rollout event – is right for you!

WHO SHOULD ATTEND
If you have not experienced Phases 1-4 of the Statewide Rollout, or are feeling behind with the implementation of NGSS, the Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout will provide you with the greatest hits from Phases 1-4!

OVERVIEW
Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout is a two-day training geared toward grade K-12 academic coaches, administrators, curriculum leads, and teacher leaders. Check-in for the two-day rollout begins at 7:30 a.m., followed by a continental breakfast. Sessions run from 8:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. on Day One and from 8:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Day Two.

Cost of training is $250 per attendee. Fee includes all materials, continental breakfast, and lunch on both days. It is recommended that districts send teams of four to six, which include at least one administrator. Payment can be made by check or credit card. If paying by check, registration is NOT complete until payment has been received. All payments must be received prior to the Rollout location date you are attending. Paying by credit card secures your seat at time of registration. No purchase orders accepted. No participant cancellation refunds.

For questions or more information, please contact Amy Kennedy at akennedy@sjcoe.net or (209) 468-9027.

REGISTER

http://bit.ly/ACCELERATINGINTONGSS

DATES & LOCATIONS
MARCH 28-29, 2018
Host: San Mateo County Office of Education
Location: San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City

APRIL 10-11, 2018
Host: Orange County Office of Education
Location: Brandman University, Irvine

MAY 1-2, 2018
Host: Tulare County Office of Education
Location: Tulare County Office of Education, Visalia

MAY 3-4, 2018
Host: San Bernardino Superintendent of Schools
Location: West End Educational Service Center, Rancho Cucamonga

MAY 7-8, 2018
Host: Sacramento County Office of Education
Location: Sacramento County Office of Education Conference Center and David P. Meaney Education Center, Mather

JUNE 14-15, 2018
Host: Imperial County Office of Education
Location: Imperial Valley College, Imperial

Presented by the California Department of Education, California County Superintendents Educational Services Association/County Offices of Education, K-12 Alliance @WestEd, California Science Project, and the California Science Teachers Association.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

The Teaching and Learning Collaborative, Reflections from an Administrator

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

by Kelly Patchen

My name is Mrs. Kelly Patchen, and I am proud to be an elementary assistant principal working in the Tracy Unified School District (TUSD) at Louis Bohn and McKinley Elementary Schools. Each of the schools I support are Title I K-5 schools with about 450 students, a diverse student population, a high percentage of English Language Learners, and students living in poverty. We’re also lucky to be part of the CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative with the K-12 Alliance. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

2018 CSTA Conference Call for Proposals

Posted: Wednesday, January 17th, 2018

CSTA is pleased to announce that we are now accepting proposals for 90-minute workshops and three- and six-hour short courses for the 2018 California Science Education Conference. Workshops and short courses make up the bulk of the content and professional learning opportunities available at the conference. In recognition of their contribution, members who present a workshop or short course receive 50% off of their registration fees. Click for more information regarding proposals, or submit one today by following the links below.

Short Course Proposal

Workshop Proposal Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

CSTA’s New Administrator Facebook Group Page

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Holly Steele

The California Science Teachers Association’s mission is to promote high-quality science education, and one of the best practice’s we use to fulfill that mission is through the use of our Facebook group pages. CSTA hosts several closed and moderated Facebook group pages for specific grade levels, (Elementary, Middle, and High School), pages for district coaches and science education faculty, and the official CSTA Facebook page. These pages serve as an online resource for teachers and coaches to exchange teaching methods, materials, staying update on science events in California and asking questions. CSTA is happy to announce the creation of a 6th group page called, California Administrators Supporting Science. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.