Inverted or Flipped Classrooms: What are they and how do they work?
Posted: Sunday, July 1st, 2012
by Laura Henriques and Meredith Ashbran
What is a flipped or inverted classroom?
Classrooms at the K-12 and college level normally include the direct instruction portion of the instructional sequence. Students listen to a lecture, take notes, and may participate in discussions. There might be some demonstrations or lab activities, but the bulk of classroom time is often spent with the teacher doing lots of work and the students passively receiving the information. Students then go home to solve problems, answer homework questions, and try to apply the information they “learned” during class. It is often at this point where the lessons, which seemed to make so much sense during school hours, seem confusing and the students need help from us. Sadly for them, we aren’t there to help!In a flipped or inverted classroom the two activities described above are swapped. Students listen to mini-lectures, do readings, and see examples online at home. They can do that independently fairly well, without our direct input. Then, during class time they work to solve problems, answer questions, and apply knowledge to new situations. This is when they are most likely to need our help, and now we can be there!
Doing this in your own classroom means some pretty dramatic changes for you and your students. Meredith Ashbran, a physics teacher in Long Beach Unified School District, participated in a few institutes hosted by Google to help educators learn to “flip” their curriculum. Last year she embraced the philosophy and taught her physics classes using a flipped, or inverted approach. Since we are seeing more and more about the merits of this approach in the popular press I thought it would be helpful to hear from a teacher who has done this to get pointers on the process and suggestions on how to get started.
Meredith, tell us about the process and how it worked for you.
What I found from implementing an inverted curriculum is that a lot more of my work was done beforehand or outside of the classroom. I was actually better planned because I had to have lectures and online activities for the students planned well in advanced of when I would be addressing the material in class. There was also a lot more preparation that I could do beforehand (like in the summer) instead of the night before. Choosing videos was fairly easy for me as I used the course lectures from Hippo Campus (see resources at the end of this article). They are well put together and were well suited for the course I was teaching. Much of the work I had to do with the lectures was making them accessible to students. I ended up making my own lecture sheets for the students to use as they went through the lectures. This gave students a more structured interaction with the video-animated lectures instead of just having them take whatever notes they wanted. The focused lecture sheets included fill in the blank sentences, drawings and diagrams that they either had to create, label, or explain, practice problems, and mini online experiments (that were really just applications of concepts in a guided environment). Outside of class the students were sometimes assigned other resources, like Khan Academy lectures, practice problems, or PHET simulations with guiding questions.
In class I was able to do so much more with the students. I was able to move away from being a “sage on a stage” and was allowed to be a guide in the kids’ learning. We would often work on problem sets in class. This took many forms such as small groups working together as I circulated the classroom, pairs working through a single problem and then going through it as a class, or even example problems that individual students and I helped the class get through. There was also much more time for activities in class. I had often, in the past, found that I had to pick and choose only certain activities because I simply did not have time to get through everything. With an inverted curriculum I found myself looking for new activities for topics I had never been able to show my kids before. I felt my time in class was so much more productive and useful for the students as I was able to help them through the more difficult application of concepts. I know that many people are concerned about access to the internet, but this was not an issue. Kids find a way to make it work.
What sort of response did your students have to this new approach?
Many of the students bought in immediately, but there were also those who resisted. I did need to make clear the justification of the different approach to the students, but soon they became self-regulating. I discussed with the students the benefits to them of the inverted curriculum, such as being able to have peer and teacher help during difficult problem sets, more chance for application and activities to help illustrate the material, and learning to be responsible for their own learning. I would encourage the students to discuss certain concepts from the previous night’s notes. Often discussion would arise when they were working on problem sets and I would hear the kids say “did you do your hippo notes?” (hippo notes are what we called the notes they took on the Hippo Campus lectures). This question was usually followed by the statement “Well, if you had done your hippo notes you would know the answer to that question.” From day one I made the class’ activities so that it was essential to have done the notes to be able to participate. I think that helped get students to do the notes.
Every now and then I would have a student who would complain and say to me “why don’t you just lecture in class? I learn better that way.” I would use this as an opportunity to question why the student thought they would learn better that way. Usually the discussion led to the student’s realization that they really just wanted to sit back and take notes all class period instead of really thinking and engaging with the material. I did have some trouble finding a way to bring up meaningful questions for discussion in class and found that students were very reluctant to ask questions in class about a lecture they had viewed outside of class. One way I hope to combat this problem next year is to include an online discussion requirement with the lectures. This will probably be in the form of Google Moderator where students and I can post questions, post answers to questions, and vote on which questions most students have. My students who really bought in seemed to like the approach. There were some that didn’t and most of the complaints came back to wanting to be told what to do, and tune out instead of really thinking, pushing themselves, and being responsible for their own learning.
There is a learning curve for implementing an inverted curriculum. I thoroughly enjoyed flipping my classroom and truly believe it is a methodology that just makes sense for our students and our society. There are things I would do differently the next time I teach the class but I know my curriculum would still be inverted.
Anything else we should know if we are thinking about flipping?
It’s not perfect, but it is a methodology that, when used well, really changes how we interact with kids and how kids interact with the curriculum. While it is still a work in progress (as traditional teaching also is), I would never go back. This approach mirrors how kids already interact with the world, so bringing this method to education makes sense. It lets me help them where they need help — doing problems and labs, and lets them work on their own for note taking, a skill they have already mastered. You can make your own videos but you don’t need to. I knew I was going to flip my entire school year so I didn’t want to have to create my own videos, and I used pre-existing ones.
While not all of us are going to change our entire curriculum, like Meredith did, we can consider moving towards a flipped curriculum in baby steps. Instead of making the entire year inverted we can create a single unit that is inverted or a few days of each unit where the “lecture” portion is done at home and class time can be spent applying those concepts and clarifying confusion. This summer might be a perfect time to plan a unit or lessons which flip things around. It can be invigorating for you and your students. The resources below provide you with a good starting point. The Google site provides reflections from other teachers who have tried this process. Good luck and have fun!
Resources to help you get started:
Hippo Campus – an online collection of lessons associated with HS science and math courses
PHET Simulations – a collection of interactive science simulations (most are physics based)
Khan Academy – online lectures on a myriad of topics
MIT Open Courses – online lectures from MIT professors (more appropriate for AP courses)
ThePhysicsClassroom – site with tutorials, problem solving help and simulations
Laura Henriques is a professor of science education at CSU Long Beach and president-elect of CSTA.
Meredith Ashbran is a physics teacher in Long Beach USD and a member of CSTA.
Posted: Tuesday, July 7th, 2015
by Minda Berbeco
Free Entry Days at:
Super-cool Science Parties and Lectures:
Nerd Nite East Bay, Last Monday of the month
Nerd Nite San Francisco, Third Wednesday of the month
Night Life, Thursdays, 6-10 pm, at the California Academy of Sciences
After Dark, First Thursday of the month, 6-10 pm, at the Exploratorium
Café Inquiry, Firth Thursday of the month, 6pm, at Café Borrone, Menlo Park
Posted: Tuesday, July 7th, 2015
by Mei Louie
Across the state, California teachers are driving innovation in the classroom and shaping our students’ futures. To support their critical work, a coalition of California colleges and universities is inviting teachers to unite on Friday, July 31, 2015 to build powerful networks, share successful classroom practices and access effective resources to implement state standards.
Thirty-three California campuses are opening their spaces and inviting an estimate of 20,000 teachers to participate in a one-day event. Teachers will have a unique opportunity to hear about proven best practices from nationally renowned speakers, fellow teachers, and leaders in education. The free convening will be led by teachers, for teachers, and will help towards building a powerful lasting network of peers. This is a chance for teachers to come together to collaborate in hope of creating a better future for California students. Teachers will walk away with concrete tools to immediately use in their classrooms to implement the California Standards including the Common Core. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, July 7th, 2015
by Lisa Hegdahl
About 10 years ago, at an after school meeting, our presenter posed the question, “Why did you become a science teacher?” Each of my colleagues gave answers such as, “I wanted to affect the future”, “I loved working with children”, and “I wanted to stay young”. As it came closer for my turn to share, I was in a panic. The truth was, I became a science teacher as a way to get out of a dead end job that had long hours and paid next to nothing.
I have often thought about that day and about the noble motives for entering our profession expressed by my colleagues. Perhaps only those of us who truly have some kind of selfless calling should endeavor to be science teachers. My reflections led me, however, to the conclusion that it is not important how people answer the question, “Why did you become a science teacher?” but how they answer the question, “Why do you continue teaching science?” I continue teaching science because I love it.
I love teaching science for all the usual reasons – I love that I get to teach a subject of which there is always more to learn; I love that I get to observe my students discovering and making sense of the world around them; and I love that I get to delight in the moments when my students teach me something from a perspective I had not previously considered. And yet, I also love teaching science because it is about more than just what happens in my classroom. People say lawyers practice law and doctors practice medicine, suggesting that these professionals continually work to improve their skills and stay current on the latest methods. Similarly, good science teachers practice teaching science, always improving their skills and staying current on the latest methods.
After years as a Science Olympiad Coach, BTSA Support Provider, and Science Department Chairperson at my school site, the pursuit of improving my science teaching skills led me to join, and ultimately volunteer for, the California Science Teachers Association. I began by presenting workshops at the annual, CSTA hosted, California Science Education Conferences. Then, in 2009, Rick Pomeroy, my former UC Davis student teaching supervisor and CSTA President 2011-2013, asked me to join the planning committee for the 2010 California Science Education Conference in Sacramento. He followed the conference committee request with invitations to chair the 2012 California Science Education Conference in San Jose, run for the 2011-2013 CSTA Jr. High/Middle School Director position, and finally, to submit my name for the 2015-2017 CSTA Presidency. Each of these experiences allowed me to network with and learn from other science educators and helped me gain new insights into science teaching. In addition, they opened doors that led to other opportunities to become involved and influence science education at the state level – the CA NGSS State Rollouts, the California Curriculum Frameworks and Evaluation Criteria Committee, and the California NGSS Early Implementation Initiative.
Throughout my involvement in these activities, one thing is repeatedly confirmed for me – there are thousands of talented science educators across California. Most of them are not on the CSTA Board of Directors, its committees, or work with its partners. They are science teachers who go into their classrooms every day and do amazing things. They practice teaching science with a passion for the subject and their students. They are not recognized for their achievements or compensated for their hours of extra work, and yet they will be back tomorrow to do it all again – many spending their own time and money to improve themselves as educators. As I take on the role of President of the California Science Teachers Association, I am incredibly humbled and proud to represent these teachers and I will strive to help them acquire and maintain the support, resources, and policies they need to continue to excel at the job they love.
I want to end with a huge Thank You to 2013-2015 CSTA President, Laura Henriques who is an incredible role model for leadership. Her grace, patience, and expertise were invaluable in preparing me for the next two years.
Posted: Tuesday, July 7th, 2015
by Kirsten Franklin
After 25 years as an elementary teacher, I decided to take the leap two years ago to become a TOSA (teacher on special assignment) to support K-12 teachers in my district in science and the common core state standards. There is no specific handbook for doing this, but luckily, there have been great local and state resources to help. I have relied mainly on the trainings and guidance received from BaySci, a San Francisco Bay Area Science Consortium headed up by the Lawrence Hall of Science that my district has been part of since 2008. Membership in CSTA and NSTA, Twitter, reading the NRC Science Framework and the NGSS performance expectations over and over have also helped me to build understanding and confidence in the content and pedagogical shifts. Wrapping one’s head around the NGSS definitely takes time and multiple exposures! Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, July 7th, 2015
by Lori Merritt
Our environment faces many challenges. Human behavior has greatly contributed to these negative changes. Children will be inheriting a world with many environmental problems and need to be prepared to face them. In order for children to care about the environment and have positive environmental behavior they first need to have experiences outside in natural environments (Chawla & Cushing, 2007; Handler & Ebstein, 2010). Unfortunately, children are spending less time in nature, making them less connected to their natural environment. In Louv’s Last Child in the Woods, nature-deficit disorder is described as “the human costs of alienation from nature, among them: diminished use of the senses, attention difficulties, and higher rates of physical and emotional illnesses” (p.36). In order for our students to be healthy, and environmentally proactive members of society we need to lead them outdoors. Learn More…