November 2015 – Vol. 28 No. 3

Inverted or Flipped Classrooms: What are they and how do they work?

Posted: Sunday, July 1st, 2012

by Laura Henriques and Meredith Ashbran

What is a flipped or inverted classroom?

Classrooms at the K-12 and college level normally include the direct instruction portion of the instructional sequence. Students listen to a lecture, take notes, and may participate in discussions. There might be some demonstrations or lab activities, but the bulk of classroom time is often spent with the teacher doing lots of work and the students passively receiving the information. Students then go home to solve problems, answer homework questions, and try to apply the information they “learned” during class. It is often at this point where the lessons, which seemed to make so much sense during school hours, seem confusing and the students need help from us. Sadly for them, we aren’t there to help!In a flipped or inverted classroom the two activities described above are swapped. Students listen to mini-lectures, do readings, and see examples online at home. They can do that independently fairly well, without our direct input. Then, during class time they work to solve problems, answer questions, and apply knowledge to new situations. This is when they are most likely to need our help, and now we can be there!

Doing this in your own classroom means some pretty dramatic changes for you and your students. Meredith Ashbran, a physics teacher in Long Beach Unified School District, participated in a few institutes hosted by Google to help educators learn to “flip” their curriculum. Last year she embraced the philosophy and taught her physics classes using a flipped, or inverted approach. Since we are seeing more and more about the merits of this approach in the popular press I thought it would be helpful to hear from a teacher who has done this to get pointers on the process and suggestions on how to get started.

Meredith, tell us about the process and how it worked for you.

What I found from implementing an inverted curriculum is that a lot more of my work was done beforehand or outside of the classroom.  I was actually better planned because I had to have lectures and online activities for the students planned well in advanced of when I would be addressing the material in class.  There was also a lot more preparation that I could do beforehand (like in the summer) instead of the night before.  Choosing videos was fairly easy for me as I used the course lectures from Hippo Campus (see resources at the end of this article).  They are well put together and were well suited for the course I was teaching.  Much of the work I had to do with the lectures was making them accessible to students.  I ended up making my own lecture sheets for the students to use as they went through the lectures.  This gave students a more structured interaction with the video-animated lectures instead of just having them take whatever notes they wanted.  The focused lecture sheets included fill in the blank sentences, drawings and diagrams that they either had to create, label, or explain, practice problems, and mini online experiments (that were really just applications of concepts in a guided environment).  Outside of class the students were sometimes assigned other resources, like Khan Academy lectures, practice problems, or PHET simulations with guiding questions. 

In class I was able to do so much more with the students.  I was able to move away from being a “sage on a stage” and was allowed to be a guide in the kids’ learning.  We would often work on problem sets in class.  This took many forms such as small groups working together as I circulated the classroom, pairs working through a single problem and then going through it as a class, or even example problems that individual students and I helped the class get through.  There was also much more time for activities in class.  I had often, in the past, found that I had to pick and choose only certain activities because I simply did not have time to get through everything.  With an inverted curriculum I found myself looking for new activities for topics I had never been able to show my kids before.  I felt my time in class was so much more productive and useful for the students as I was able to help them through the more difficult application of concepts. I know that many people are concerned about access to the internet, but this was not an issue. Kids find a way to make it work.

What sort of response did your students have to this new approach?

Many of the students bought in immediately, but there were also those who resisted.  I did need to make clear the justification of the different approach to the students, but soon they became self-regulating.  I discussed with the students the benefits to them of the inverted curriculum, such as being able to have peer and teacher help during difficult problem sets, more chance for application and activities to help illustrate the material, and learning to be responsible for their own learning.  I would encourage the students to discuss certain concepts from the previous night’s notes. Often discussion would arise when they were working on problem sets and I would hear the kids say “did you do your hippo notes?” (hippo notes are what we called the notes they took on the Hippo Campus lectures). This question was usually followed by the statement “Well, if you had done your hippo notes you would know the answer to that question.” From day one I made the class’ activities so that it was essential to have done the notes to be able to participate.  I think that helped get students to do the notes. 

Every now and then I would have a student who would complain and say to me “why don’t you just lecture in class? I learn better that way.”  I would use this as an opportunity to question why the student thought they would learn better that way.  Usually the discussion led to the student’s realization that they really just wanted to sit back and take notes all class period instead of really thinking and engaging with the material. I did have some trouble finding a way to bring up meaningful questions for discussion in class and found that students were very reluctant to ask questions in class about a lecture they had viewed outside of class.  One way I hope to combat this problem next year is to include an online discussion requirement with the lectures.  This will probably be in the form of Google Moderator where students and I can post questions, post answers to questions, and vote on which questions most students have.  My students who really bought in seemed to like the approach.  There were some that didn’t and most of the complaints came back to wanting to be told what to do, and tune out instead of really thinking, pushing themselves, and being responsible for their own learning. 

There is a learning curve for implementing an inverted curriculum.  I thoroughly enjoyed flipping my classroom and truly believe it is a methodology that just makes sense for our students and our society.  There are things I would do differently the next time I teach the class but I know my curriculum would still be inverted.

Anything else we should know if we are thinking about flipping?

It’s not perfect, but it is a methodology that, when used well, really changes how we interact with kids and how kids interact with the curriculum. While it is still a work in progress (as traditional teaching also is), I would never go back. This approach mirrors  how kids already interact with the world, so bringing this method to education makes sense. It lets me help them where they need help — doing problems and labs, and lets them work on their own for note taking, a skill they have already mastered. You can make your own videos but you don’t need to. I knew I was going to flip my entire school year so I didn’t want to have to create my own videos, and I used pre-existing ones.

While not all of us are going to change our entire curriculum, like Meredith did, we can consider moving towards a flipped curriculum in baby steps. Instead of making the entire year inverted we can create a single unit that is inverted or a few days of each unit where the “lecture” portion is done at home and class time can be spent applying those concepts and clarifying confusion. This summer might be a perfect time to plan a unit or lessons which flip things around. It can be invigorating for you and your students. The resources below provide you with a good starting point. The Google site provides reflections from other teachers who have tried this process. Good luck and have fun!

Resources to help you get started:

Hippo Campus – an online collection of lessons associated with HS science and math courses

PHET Simulations – a collection of interactive science simulations (most are physics based)

Khan Academy – online lectures on a myriad of topics

MIT Open Courses – online lectures from MIT professors (more appropriate for AP courses)

ThePhysicsClassroom – site with tutorials, problem solving help and simulations

Read about other teachers’ experiences flipping units.

Laura Henriques is a professor of science education at CSU Long Beach and president-elect of CSTA. 

Meredith Ashbran is a physics teacher in Long Beach USD and a member of CSTA.

Written by Laura Henriques

Laura Henriques

Laura Henriques is a professor of science education at CSU Long Beach and past-president of CSTA. She serves as chair of CSTA’s Nominating Committee and is a co-chair of the NGSS Committee.

4 Responses

  1. I’m curious how teachers of “flipped” middle-school classrooms resolve such issues as:

    1) Online collaboration sites: when students are too young to establish email accounts

    2) Intervention strategies when students have not “figured it out”: teaching effective note-taking and class discussion etiquette and online discussion “netiquette”

    3) Strategies for tracking individual progress that do not increase teacher’s workload

    4) Grading strategies: how do “flipped” classroom gradebook s differ from traditional ones?

    Thank you!

  2. Wow! This is a great, innovative teaching idea. I have had students commenting not understanding my lecture, so this inverted curriculum would be great to try for a unit for a starter. Thank you.

  3. Hi Hope,
    Meredith is out of town so I will take the first stab at answering your questions and then she can get back to you with more specifics next week.

    Much of what is proposed here does not require an email account. There are mini lectures, simulations, and video clips which students watch and study from individually (much like what the direct instruction portion of class time would look like). It is during class time that kids are collaborating, getting input and help from the teacher, etc. Kids would need access to the web, but not to email. The ‘help’ for taking good notes is a concern. That is why you should develop note taking guidelines, scaffolded note pages, etc.

    I will let Meredith respond to the additional grade book issues. For the way I have used it (college level) they either do it or don’t. I don’t grade for that, but they will be lost in class if they have not done the at home piece.

    Thanks for your questions. The rest will be answered early next week :)


  4. Hi Hope!
    Thanks so much for your questions. I have not worked with middle school students but I did a little bit of flipped curriculum with my 9th graders. I really didn’t use too many sites that kids needed an e-mail address. The one that I can think of is Khan Academy and the students may be able to use a parent e-mail. There is an education based social network that only students from your class are allowed to access called My Big Campus that might be a safer online social environment for middle school students.
    In my opinion the inverted curriculum gives more of an opportunity to work with students who haven’t figured it out. You have so much more time to interact with kids one-on-one and there are lots of ways to check for understanding in class. In terms of note taking, even with my high school AP students, I had to create notes sheets for them to fill in with the lectures. If you want to teach effective note-taking that is absolutely a skill you can work on with the inverted curriculum. Your goals for your students will determine how you approach the online portion of the class. Especially with middle schoolers I think a discussion on “netiquette” is essential. Making clear what is and is not appropriate for the online portion of your course will help save you some sticky discussions later.
    In terms of tracking progress, the kids became self regulating pretty early on. I made it a point to discuss and use the information from last nights lecture in class everyday. This way kids knew that I was holding them accountable. I gave my students points for taking notes in class before I flipped my curriculum so for me it was no more work to give them points for taking their notes at home. While it served as motivation I’m not sure it was necessary. The rest of the grading was really quite the same. I found my gradebook was exactly the same, what really changed was my role in the classroom and the types of activities and help I was able to give my students.
    Please Please let me know if you still have any questions or if anything I said is unclear!

Leave a Reply


Your Chance to Review the California Science Curriculum Framework Is Here

Posted: Tuesday, November 17th, 2015

by Laura Henriques

The California Science Curriculum Framework & Evaluation Criteria document is now ready for its first 60 Day Public Feedback period.! This is a critical process for the review and vetting of the document. Anyone from around the state is invited to read the document and provide feedback. CSTA encourages its members to participate in this process.

Just to be clear, the California Curriculum Framework is different from the NRC Framework for K-12 Science Education. The NRC Framework is the document which guided the development of Next Generation Science Standards. The California Curriculum Framework is the document which will help us make sense of those standards in our classrooms. Learn More…

Written by Laura Henriques

Laura Henriques

Laura Henriques is a professor of science education at CSU Long Beach and past-president of CSTA. She serves as chair of CSTA’s Nominating Committee and is a co-chair of the NGSS Committee.

Call for Nominations for the 2016-2018 CSTA Board of Directors

Posted: Thursday, November 12th, 2015

It’s that time of year when CSTA is looking for dedicated and qualified persons to fill the upcoming vacancies on its Board of Directors. This opportunity allows you to help shape the policy and determine the path that the Board will take in the new year. There is a time and energy commitment, but that is far outweighed by the personal satisfaction of knowing that you are an integral part of an outstanding professional educational organization, dedicated to the support and guidance of California’s science teachers. You will also have the opportunity to help CSTA review and support legislation that benefits good science teaching and teachers.

Right now is an exciting time to be involved at the state level in the California Science Teachers Association. The CSTA Board of Directors is currently involved in implementing the Next Generations Science Standards and its strategic plan. If you are interesting in serving on the CSTA Board of Directors, now is the time to submit your name for consideration. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Middle School Madness Part 2: Integrated Science Versus Coordinated Science

Posted: Thursday, November 12th, 2015

by Robert Sherriff

In my last article, I compared the integrated versus discipline-specific models of teaching science in middle school. In this article, I seek to dispel some misconceptions and refine the comparison of an integrated science program with a coordinated science program.

This past summer, I was honored to participate in presenting at the two Northern California NGSS Early Implementation Institutes. I was part of a science content cadre to which I brought both my 25 years of middle school teaching experience and my knowledge of NGSS (I was on the State Science Expert Panel and was Co-chair of the Curriculum Framework Criteria Committee – CFCC). Other members of the cadre included Bob Rumer, an innovative engineering professor who helped us incorporate the Engineering Standards, and an outstanding high school science teacher, Lesley Gates, who helped provide activities and pedagogy. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy:

The Tree Room: A New Online Resource for Teaching Evolutionary Relationships

Posted: Thursday, November 12th, 2015

by Anna Thanukos, Teresa MacDonald, David Heiser, and Robert Ross

Understanding evolutionary trees is important for students because trees visually represent the idea that all life is genealogically linked. This powerful idea, tied to Next Generation Science Standards MS-LS4-2 and HS-LS4-1, is one of those most fundamental concepts that biological evolution offers to explain the biological world. The implication is that any set of species, no matter how distantly related, share common ancestors at some point in evolutionary history. Evolutionary trees are an efficient way to communicate that idea. It turns out, however, that evolutionary trees are not quite as straightforward to interpret as they may at first appear — so where can a teacher turn for a user-friendly introduction to their use in the classroom? Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy:

Ship That Chip: Teaching Engineering by Using Snacks

Posted: Thursday, November 12th, 2015

by Joanne Michael

When a new school year begins, almost every student (and teacher) is excited, motivated, and ready to work hard. Almost as quickly as it began, however, the “newness” of the school year wears off, and the students are in need of something new to recharge them. At the same time, teachers attempting to implement NGSS (even if not in full implementation mode) are getting tired, and may need a pick-me-up of their own. Enter the “Ship the Chip” challenge! Learn More…

Written by Joanne Michael

Joanne Michael is the K-5 science specialist at Meadows Elementary in Manhattan Beach, CA, and CSTA’s intermediate grades 3-5) Director.