January/February 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 4

Navigating the NGSS Change Process: Understanding the How, What, and Why

Posted: Monday, June 20th, 2016

by John Spiegel

Change is difficult. It requires significant shifts in thinking as we seek to understand what is changing and how we are supposed to implement those changes. Change can also be deeply emotional. It asks us to rethink the fundamental purposes and rationale for what we do, how we do it, and also why we do it. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) introduce a vision for science education that shifts the way students experience and learn science and engineering. It also places significant demands on teachers to rethink how they plan, teach, and assess in the classroom. Educators respond to these changes with a variety of emotions, which must be considered as part of the NGSS implementation process.

Over the past several years, I have introduced NGSS to thousands of teachers and hundreds of administrators. During that time I have attempted to help them understand what NGSS is and how to implement the Science and Engineering Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Disciplinary Core Ideas into planning, instruction, and assessment. This work has sought to answer the questions of what and how described below.

‘What’ Questions

  • What are the NGSS?
  • What are the changes NGSS brings?
  • What are the dimensions of NGSS?
  • What is three-dimensional learning?

‘How’ Questions

  • How will NGSS affect how I plan, assess, and teach?
  • How do I teach with the three dimensions of NGSS in mind?
  • How do students learn in a three-dimensional classroom?

Recently I have come to realize that focusing only on the what and how is insufficient in supporting educators as they move through the NGSS change process. As I meet with and listen to teachers, I notice they respond to the new standards in a variety of ways, ranging from excitement and enthusiasm on one extreme to dread and negativity on the other. I observe teachers who soak up new information like a thirsty sponge while others fold their arms and shut down. The difference between these extremes comes down to having a personal understanding of why it all matters in the first place. Answering questions of why are as important as questions of what and how.

‘Why’ Questions

  • Why is important for me to implement NGSS?
  • Why should students in my classroom experience science differently?
  • Why should I do things differently?
  • Why does three dimensional teaching and learning matter?

A review of NGSS literature, including the Framework for K-12 Science Education1, the NGSS Appendices2, and the California Science Framework3, provide insights into these why questions. Answers are not just external knowledge, meaning we can outwardly say the right things in conversations with peers or administrators. They are more internal ideas and reflections that drive how we feel and what we believe about science teaching and learning. Our responses to the why questions ultimately shape what we do in the classroom. They also affect what we believe about the challenges and opportunities in science education, including student access and equity.

The connection, or disconnection, between what we know and believe is an important aspect of the change process and affects teachers willingness and readiness to implement the NGSS4. A teacher who knows how the Science and Engineering Practices support language development and also believes all students, including English learners, can participate fully in scientific processes will seek ways to scaffold instruction accordingly. Conversely, a teacher who knows that three dimensional learning is important but does not believe it will improve student performance on statewide assessments will struggle to implement NGSS in their classroom.

Figure 1 below describes the connection between questions of what, how, and why (shown in purple) and key emotions teachers often feel as they build their capacity to implement NGSS (shown in red). When educators can answer questions of what, how, and why, they feel empowered to change and take action. They are the ones who advocate for their needs, including time to collaborate, plan, and build capacity of themselves and others in their school or district. Empowered teachers recognize the importance of deepening understanding of NGSS and are willing to struggle and learn as they begin implementing three-dimensional lessons in their classroom.

Figure 1 Image Source: J. Spiegel personal collection

Figure 1
Image Source: J. Spiegel personal collection

If teachers can only answer questions of what and how, but do not clearly understand why, they might feel resistance to change. This is often felt in the individual who is asked to do things differently in their classroom and is being shown how, but does not yet understand why they need to do it and why the extra effort is worth it.

If teachers can only answer questions of what and why, but do not know how to do it, they often feel frustration. An example of this is an educator who understands what NGSS is and knows why it is important for students, but does not know how to plan lessons or instruction aligned to performance expectations and the three dimensions.

Finally, if teachers can only answer questions of why and how, but not what, they sometimes feel incapable of implementing the change. This might be the person who knows why they need to change the way students experience science and have been given three-dimensional lessons, but does not have sufficient knowledge of the Science and Engineering Practices or Crosscutting Concepts to implement that lesson.

As educators continue to navigate the NGSS change process, it is important for them to take the time to reflect on their own understanding of questions of how, what, and why. One goal of professional learning should be to help empower teachers and administrators as they move from awareness to implementation of NGSS. The road ahead is not easy. Change is difficult. The reward is a generation of children who have an appreciation for and a love of science.

For more help, feel free to contact Kirk Brown, director of STEM at the San Joaquin County Office of Education at kbrown@sjcoe.net, Maria Simani from the California Science Project at maria.simani@ucr.edu, or Kathy DiRanna, WestEd’s K-12 Alliance Statewide Director, at kdirann@wested.org. The CSTA NGSS page is also a wonderful resource, and can be located at http://www.classroomscience.org/category/ngss.

Acknowledgements: Thank you to Chelsea Cochrane (San Diego County Office of Education) and Jennifer McCluan (San Diego Unified School District) for their insights and feedback in developing this article.

John Spiegel is a Science Coordinator at the San Diego County Office of Education. He is available by email at john.spiegel@sdcoe.net and can be followed on Twitter at @sdngss.

—————————–

1 The Framework for K-12 Science Education is available at http://www.nap.edu/catalog/13165/a-framework-for-k-12-science-education-practices-crosscutting-concepts.

2 The NGSS Appendices can be found at http://nextgenscience.org/get-to-know.

3 The CA Science Framework is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/sc/cf/scifw1st60daypubreview.asp.

4 The Relationship between Teachers’ Knowledge and Beliefs about Science and Inquiry and Their Classroom Practices (2012). Taken from http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/sc/cf/scifw1st60daypubreview.asp.

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Leave a Reply

LATEST POST

STEM Conference Hosted by CMSESMC

Posted: Saturday, January 14th, 2017

The Council of Math/Science Educators of San Mateo County will be hosting the 41st annual STEM Conference this February 4, 2017 at the San Mateo County Office of Education. This STEM Conference is the place to get lots of new lessons and ideas to use in your classroom. There will be over twenty-five workshops and a variety of exhibitors that provide participants with a wide range of practical and realistic ideas and resources to use in their science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs from Pre-K to grade 12. With California’s adoption of the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards, we are dedicated to ensuring that we prepare our teachers to take on these educational policies.

Teachers, administrators, and parents are invited to explore the many exciting aspects of STEM education and learn about and discuss the latest news, information, and issues. This is also an opportunity to network with colleagues who can assist you in building your programs and meet new friends that share your interests and love of teaching. Register online today!

Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Submit Your NGSS Lessons and Units Today!

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

Achieve has launched and is facilitating an EQuIP Peer Review Panel for Science–a group of expert reviewers who will evaluate the quality and alignment of lessons and units to the standards–in an effort to identify and shine a spotlight on emerging high-quality lesson and unit plans designed for the NGSS.

If you or your state, district, school, or organization has designed NGSS-aligned instructional materials, please consider submitting these in order to help provide educators across the country with various models and templates of high-quality lesson and unit plans. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Opportunity for High School Students – Los Angeles County

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

An upcoming Perry Outreach Program on Saturday, April 22, 2017 at the Orthopaedic Institute for Children in Los Angeles, CA. The Perry Outreach Program is a free, one-day, hands-on experience for high school and college-aged women who are interested in pursuing careers in medicine and engineering. Students will hear from women leaders in these fields and try it for themselves by performing mock orthopaedic surgeries and biomechanics experiments. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Science Education Policy Update

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

January 2017 has proven to be a very busy month for science education policy and CA NGSS implementation activities. CSTA has been and will be there every step of the way, seeking and enacting all options to support high-quality science education and the successful implementation of CA NGSS.

California Department of Education/U.S. Department of Education Science Double-Testing Waiver Hearing

The year started with California Department of Education’s (CDE) hearing with the U.S. Department of Education conducted via WebEx on January 6, 2017. This hearing was the final step in California’s efforts to secure a waiver from the federal government in order to discontinue administration of the old CST and suspension of the reporting of student test scores on a science assessment for two years. As reported by EdSource, the U.S. Department of Education representative, Ann Whalen, a senior adviser to U.S. Secretary John King Jr., committed to making her final ruling “very shortly.” Deputy Superintendent Keric Ashley presented on behalf of CDE during the hearing and did an excellent job describing the broad-based support for this waiver in California, the rationale for the waiver, and California’s commitment to the successful implementation of a new high-quality science assessment. As previously reported, California is moving forward with its plans to administer a census pilot assessments this spring. The testing window is set to open on March 20, 2017. For more information visit New CA Science Test: What You Should Know.

Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko is CSTA’s Executive Director.

NSTA Los Angeles Conference Features Many CA Science Leaders

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

The early-bird registration rates for the 65th NSTA National Conference on Science Education in Los Angeles is just days away (ends Feb. 3). And as the early-registration deadline approaches excitement is building for what is anticipated to be the largest gathering of science educators (both California and nationwide) – with attendance expected to reach 10,000 or more. If you have never had the pleasure of attending the NSTA National Conference, I recommend you visit their website with tips for newcomers that describe the various components of the event. A conference preview is also available for download. Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko is CSTA’s Executive Director.