Shifting Priorities: Teaching Students to Defend and Not Just Identify Answers
Posted: Tuesday, September 2nd, 2014
by Sinead Klement
While still in the thick of teaching each school year, I prepare a list of things I want to do better the following year. Many times, I focus on little procedural changes that might help keep the room cleaner or help save valuable class time. Other times it is just about tweaking my lessons to add something cool I learned at a workshop or found online. This year, however, I am preparing for a massive shift in priorities. For years my focus has been on making science hands-on and of course FUN, but if I am being honest, it has also been on preparing my students to take a 66 question multiple-choice test in April. This year my focus will shift from being a teacher who can get students to successfully pick out correct answers in a lineup of answers, to being a teacher of scientific writing and communication. Although absolutely necessary, this change may be a little painful. The most notable loss may be the possible sacrifice of some of my favorite hands-on activities in order to make time for students to process their science experiences with real writing.
The timing for this goal could not be better. This year math and language arts teachers are moving ahead with the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS), but we science teachers feel like we are in a kind of limbo period. The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are adopted, yet are not meant for full implementation until a few years from now when curriculum and assessments are developed. In the meantime, we are still assessing students in fifth, eighth, and tenth grade on the “old” standards. Consequently, science teachers are expected to teach the old standards but are to integrate CCSS into our current curriculums until we transition to the NGSS.
Initially, I was a little annoyed. I was impatient and ready to get on with the NGSS. I was also feeling a little jealous of all the attention language arts and math teachers were receiving in their transition, but mostly I was just anxious to be rid of these “mile wide but inch deep” science standards. Upon reflection, though, I realized that I should be grateful for the gift of time. We have a couple years to practice teaching our students CCSS skills such as writing constructed responses and reading primary source science documents before having our students take a new test and I feel like we are lucky the changes are not happening all at once. For this year, then, I am going to start by integrating some of the Common Core writing standards into my current curriculum.
Over the past decade and a half, I always felt that my program was missing something. Even when my students do really well on the standard multiple-choice tests, I am often quickly deflated when I ask my students to support their answers with evidence. Common responses from students are almost always something like, “because it makes sense” or, “because Mrs. Klement taught it to us.” Rarely will a student cite evidence from the many lab investigations we did in class or cite supporting information from their textbook. When looking at the CCCS W.1, I realized that students are going to have to be proficient in writing arguments supported by evidence, a skill many of my former students lacked when I taught them.
Given the “even less than subpar” answers I usually get from students when I ask them to support their answers with evidence, I quickly realized that I will need to scaffold this process for them. Initially, I thought simply referring to our “Activity Summary Sheet” on the board before having them write their supporting paragraphs would be enough. (The Activity Summary Sheet is a large sheet of paper where we list all the activities we have done in class, what we observed in those activities, what we learned from those activities, and how those ideas relate to the bigger science concept we are studying.) It was not. They still provided the same thin responses as before. What I came to realize is that my students do not support their arguments/claims with evidence because they have not been explicitly taught how, and I cannot assume that they have been taught how to do this in their English class. I concluded, somewhat reluctantly, that it is my job to teach them this skill.
As a result, I have been spending a lot of time this summer coming up with a strategy for how to better teach my students to write strong evidence-based claims. Although I have not yet had a chance to fully test this out with students, I have a tentative plan for helping my students develop this skill. First, I will continue to create Activity Summary Sheets for each unit because I do believe that this helps students see how all of the things we observe and learn are interconnected and not discreet events. I will also try to help them plan their writing with a graphic organizer. The best one I’ve found was presented by Sandra Yellenberg (Science Coordinator, Santa Clara County Office of Education) at the 2013 CSTA conference. It does a really good job at breaking down this kind of writing into reasonable chunks for students. I will guide students through the process of transforming the information in the graphic organizer into a paragraph and will then develop a writing checklist so that they can both self-edit and peer-edit the papers. This is essential because I cannot imagine correcting each and every one myself especially since I am planning on having students practice their writing skills a lot.
While this is certainly not the easiest goal I’ve ever set for my students and I, it may be one of the more important ones. Hopefully, we will all learn more and possibly even have more fun than ever before.
Sinead Klement is an 8th grade science teacher at Jackson Junior High School and is a member of CSTA.
Posted: Wednesday, October 12th, 2016
by Jessica Sawko
In June 2016 California submitted a waiver application to discontinue using the old CST (based on 1998 standards) and conduct two years of pilot and field tests (in spring 2017 and 2018, respectively) of the new science assessment designed to support our state’s current science standards (California Next Generation Science Standards (CA-NGSS) adopted in 2013). The waiver was requested because no student scores will be provided as a part of the pilot and field tests. The CDE received a response from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on September 30, 2016, which provides the CDE the opportunity to resubmit a revised waiver request within 60 days. The CDE will be revising the waiver request and resubmitting as ED suggested.
At its October 2016 North/South Assessment meetings CDE confirmed that there will be no administration of the old CST in the spring of 2017. (An archive of the meeting is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/ai/infomeeting.asp.) Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
by Carol Peterson
1) To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service, Google has put together a collection of virtual tours combining 360-degree video, panoramic photos and expert narration. It’s called “The Hidden Worlds of the National Parks” and is accessible right from the browser. You can choose from one of five different locales, including the Kenai Fjords in Alaska and Bryce Canyon in Utah, and get a guided “tour” from a local park ranger. Each one has a few virtual vistas to explore, with documentary-style voiceovers and extra media hidden behind clickable thumbnails. Ideas are included for use in classrooms. https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/25/google-offers-360-degree-tours-of-us-national-parks/. Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
CSTA is pleased to announce the winners of the 2016 CSTA Awards for Distinguished Contributions, Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, 2014 and 2015 PAEMST-Science recipients from California, and the 2016 California PAEMST Finalists. The following individuals and organizations will be honored during the 2016 California Science Education Conference on October 21- 23 in Palm Springs. This year’s group of awardees are truly outstanding. Please join us in congratulating them!
Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award
The Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award honors an individual who has made a significant contribution to science education in the state and who, through years of leadership and service, has truly made a positive impact on the quality of science teaching. This year’s recipient is John Keller, Ph.D. Dr. Keller is Associate Professor, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and Co-Director, Center for Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Education, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In her letter of recommendation, SDSU science education faculty and former CSTA board member Donna Ross wrote: “He brings people together who share the desire to make a difference in the development and implementation of programs for science teaching. Examples of these projects include the Math and Science Teaching Initiative (MSTI), Noyce Scholars Program, Western Regional Noyce Initiative, and the Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program.” Through his work, he has had a dramatic impact on science teacher education, both preservice and in-service, in California, the region, and the country. He developed and implemented the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program which aims to produce excellent K-12 STEM teachers by providing aspiring teachers with opportunities to do authentic research while helping them translate their research experience into classroom practice. SFSU faculty member Larry Horvath said it best in his letter:“John Keller exemplifies the best aspects of a scientist, science educator, and mentor. His contributions to science education in the state of California are varied, significant, and I am sure will continue well into the future.” Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Peter A’hearn
NGSS is a big shift. Teachers need to learn new content, figure out how this whole engineering thing relates to science, and develop new unit and lesson plans. How could NGSS possibly make life easier?
The idea that NGSS could make our lives easier came to me during the California State NGSS Rollout #1 Classroom Example lesson on chromatography. I have since done this lesson with high school chemistry students and it made me think back to having my own students do chromatography. I spent lots of time preparing to make sure the experiment went well and achieved the “correct” result. I pre-prepared the solutions and organized and prepped the materials. I re-wrote and re-wrote again the procedure so there was no way a kid could get it wrong. I spent 20 minutes before the lab modeling all of the steps in class, so there was no way to do it wrong. Except that it turns out there were many. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt
Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. Learn More…