Sky Events for February 2013
Posted: Friday, February 1st, 2013
by Robert Victor
Several of the sky events this month take place close to the horizon. During my years at Abrams Planetarium at Michigan State University, we were fortunate to have a four-level parking ramp directly behind our building. Serving as our ziggurat, it provided a wonderful panoramic view of the distant western horizon, including downtown Lansing and the Michigan State Capitol Building four miles away. We, and often our public audiences, would climb the stairs (or take the elevator) to the top level to watch for planetary gatherings, the first and last visibility of individual planets during their apparitions, heliacal settings (annual last dates of visibility) of first-magnitude stars, and lunar and solar eclipses. At one time we held the record for the youngest crescent Moon ever, a hairline-thin Moon, age 13 hours 28 minutes after New, seen through binoculars from our parking ramp on May 5, 1989 (reported in the following September’s issue of Sky & Telescope magazine). Our staff led memorable public viewing sessions atop the ramp for the transits of Venus at sunrise on June 8, 2004 and at sunset on June 5, 2012. Students from elementary schools in Palm Springs joined forces with the public at a city park to observe last June’s transit for over four hours until the Sun disappeared below the horizon.
Perhaps you and your students have access to a convenient location for sky watching. Even a ground-level site with good views of the horizon could serve as your ziggurat.
- Evening Planet Visibility Map at Mid-Twilight for February 2013
- Morning Planet Visibility Map at Mid-Twilight for February 2013
First, a selection of horizon events during February and early March 2013:
** Mercury and Mars appear very low in WSW in February at dusk, forming a close twilight-only pair for several evenings around Feb. 8, while bright Jupiter shines high in the southern sky, against the spectacular background of Taurus, the Bull. On Feb. 16, Mercury reaches greatest elongation (angular distance from the Sun, 18° this time), but is still only 9° up in mid-twilight, when the Sun is 9° down, about 40 to 45 minutes after sunset. Fainter Mars will then appear just over 5° below Mercury. Binoculars are recommended, especially for spotting faint Mars. Mercury fades in the next week, equaling Mars by Feb. 23, and fades further and drops from sight within a couple of days later.
A much brighter gathering of planets, a spectacular evening twilight trio of Venus-Jupiter-Mercury fitting within a 5° field May 24-29, will be described and illustrated in the May issue of eCCS.
** Follow the old crescent Moon at dawn during Feb. 7-9, and the young crescent at dusk on Feb. 10-12. Binoculars are recommended — they’ll give you great views of earthshine on the Moon’s dark side, and may be required to see the very thin crescents on Feb. 9 and 10.
** Similarly around the next New Moon of March 11, follow the old crescent at dawn during Mar. 8-10, and the young crescent at dusk during Mar. 12-14. Comet PanSTARRS will appear just 4° to the left of the first lunar crescent at dusk on March 12. This Comet may perform low in W at dusk in the second and third weeks of March. Details below.
Here is a more general listing of sky events, most occurring well up in the sky.
Predawn events in early February. Look one hour before sunrise, unless otherwise specified. Skip to Feb. 10 if you’re not into getting up early for morning skywatching.
Fri Feb 1: Spica upper left of waning gibbous Moon.
Sat Feb 2: Spica to right of Moon; Saturn to Moon’s upper left.
Sun Feb 3: Last Quarter Moon appears half full, and is 90° W of Sun in morning sky. Saturn is to Moon’s upper right.
Mon Feb 4: Antares, heart of Scorpion, is lower left of fat waning crescent Moon. Saturn is to Moon’s upper right.
Tue Feb 5: Antares is to Moon’s lower right.
Wed Feb 6: Antares is to Moon’s upper right.
Thu Feb 7: Follow the Moon until 25 min before sunrise, when the 10 percent crescent will be in the southeast. Then watch for Venus rising in ESE, 24° lower left of the Moon. Practicing locating Venus this morning and Friday morning will help you locate the challenging very old Moon on Saturday morning.
Fri Feb 8, 25 min before sunrise: The 4 percent crescent Moon will be low in ESE, with Venus 12° to its lower left.
Sat Feb 9, 25 min before sunrise: Bring your binoculars for a view of an exceeding thin crescent Moon, less than one percent illuminated, with Venus just over 5° to lower right of the Moon’s southern cusp (lower point of the crescent). If you spot Venus first, then look to its upper left for the hairline crescent. This is the last pairing of Venus and Moon in the morning sky until Jan. 28 and 29, 2014. Further, the Moon will be only about 17 hours before New as seen from southern California.
Very young Moon at dusk on Sunday, Feb. 10: It is unusual to spot the Moon within 24 hours before or after New. This time, New Moon occurs on Saturday, Feb. 9 at 11:20 p.m. PST, and conditions are favorable for California sky watchers to nab the Moon not just once, but twice within 24 hours of New, once before and once after the Moon’s solar conjunction! February’s New Moon is midway between the solar eclipses of last November and next May, and so this time the Moon is 5° north of the ecliptic, placing it higher in our skies; and the Moon passed perigee on Thursday, Feb. 7 and so moves swiftly through the zone of invisibility surrounding the Sun. Finally, the timing of New Moon near the middle of the night lays the groundwork for observers in the southwestern U.S. to try for the old crescent Moon on Feb. 9 and the young crescent on the evening of the next day, Feb. 10.
If you fail to spot the old crescent on Sat. morning Feb. 9, don’t let that discourage you from trying for the very young crescent at dusk on Sunday, Feb. 10. Conditions will be easier, but binoculars are still recommended: 25 minutes after sunset on Sunday, Californians can catch the thin crescent 18 to 19 hours after New and about 4° above the horizon, about 11° south of due west, and 10° almost directly above the Sun (which will be 6° below the horizon). Especially from southern parts of the state, where the Moon’s azimuth will be north of the Sun’s, experienced observers may notice something “odd” about the orientation of the evening crescent: It will appear tipped slightly to the north (right).
As the Moon sinks toward the horizon that evening and the sky darkens, note Mercury 9° to the Moon’s upper left, and fainter Mars 2° below Mercury.
If you succeed in seeing either the old crescent at dawn on Feb. 9 or the young crescent at dusk on Feb. 10, you have done well. Let us know! If you succeed in seeing both, you will have seen “opposing crescents on consecutive days”, and will join a very select group of observers who have done so.
After Feb. 10, follow the Moon nightly in the evening sky. For the next few evenings, it climbs about 12° higher daily. On Mon. Feb. 11, the easy 4 percent crescent is accompanied by Mercury 7° to lower right, and Mars 2.7° below Mercury. On that evening and the next, the earthshine on the Moon’s dark side shows up best. The view through binoculars and small telescopes is impressive
On Sunday, Feb. 17, the Moon will be just past First Quarter phase, just over half full and high in SSW to SW an hour after sunset. Bright Jupiter will appear within 5° to Moon’s upper left, and the beautiful Pleiades (Seven Sisters) star cluster 5°-6° to Moon’s upper right. Aldebaran, eye of Taurus, is within 6° to Jupiter’s lower left. The fainter stars between that star and Jupiter complete a “V” with Aldebaran, outlining the head of the Bull. The fainter stars of the “V”, but not Aldebaran, are members of the Hyades star cluster. These two clusters, the Moon, and Jupiter, are wonderful fields for exploration with binoculars. As you view this scene, consider that the light photons you receive from the various objects began their journeys at different times: From the Moon, only 1.3 seconds ago; from Jupiter, about 40 minutes ago; from Aldebaran, about 67 years ago; from the Hyades, some 150 years ago. Light from the Pleiades left their stars’ surfaces about 400 years ago, about the time Galileo discovered the four bright satellites of Jupiter you can observe through telescopes, and even binoculars.
When you’re outdoors on the evening of Feb. 17, visualize this: As you look at the Pleiades in the evening sky around this date, you are facing almost exactly opposite to the direction the Earth is moving in its orbit around the Sun. We are leaving Jupiter behind, and are passing between our Sun and the star Regulus, heart of Leo. Find that star low in the eastern sky as dusk deepens. Regulus is visible all night long at this time of year, passing high in the southern sky in the middle of the night, and sinking low in the western sky as dawn brightens.
Just over 3-1/2 hours before your observation on the evening of Feb. 17, the Earth, speeding through space at 30 km/sec (1/10,000 of the speed of light), zipped through a spot just west of the Moon’s current position. (Fortunately, the Moon wasn’t there then!
In three months, around May 20, the Earth will have moved a quarter of the way around the Sun, and the Pleiades cluster will appear on the far side of the Sun, hidden from our view. Aldebaran and the Hyades will be gone also, but Jupiter will still be seen, just below the horns of the Bull.
Evenings during Feb. 17-25, watch the Moon work its way through gibbous phases, from First Quarter to Full. On Feb. 18, the Moon will appear 5° from Aldebaran and 7° E of Jupiter. On Feb. 19, the Moon will appear near the 3rd-mag. star Zeta Tauri, which marks the southern horn of the Bull. On Feb. 20, the Moon will appear in the feet of Gemini, the Twins, and 15° from Betelgeuse, Orion’s reddish shoulder. On Feb. 21, the Moon will be 12°-15° S of Pollux and Castor, the “Twin” stars of Gemini, 4-1/2° apart. On Feb. 24, the nearly full Moon will appear 6° right of Regulus, heart of Leo. Finally, at dusk on Feb. 25, the Moon, just past Full, will appear low in the east at dusk, 13° lower left of Regulus. For the following few evenings, the Moon will rise just over an hour later each night, soon becoming unavailable before traditional bedtimes.
Mornings during Feb. 25-28, you can continue following the Moon by looking an hour before sunrise. On Feb. 25, find the Full Moon low in the west, with Regulus within 7° to its upper right. On Feb. 28, the waning gibbous Moon has Spica, the spike of grain in Virgo’s hand, 11° to its upper left.
For sky events in March 2013, including details on locating the Comet PanSTARRS, click here.
Click here for the latest report on what to expect of Comet PanSTARRS
Posted: Wednesday, October 12th, 2016
by Jessica Sawko
In June 2016 California submitted a waiver application to discontinue using the old CST (based on 1998 standards) and conduct two years of pilot and field tests (in spring 2017 and 2018, respectively) of the new science assessment designed to support our state’s current science standards (California Next Generation Science Standards (CA-NGSS) adopted in 2013). The waiver was requested because no student scores will be provided as a part of the pilot and field tests. The CDE received a response from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on September 30, 2016, which provides the CDE the opportunity to resubmit a revised waiver request within 60 days. The CDE will be revising the waiver request and resubmitting as ED suggested.
At its October 2016 North/South Assessment meetings CDE confirmed that there will be no administration of the old CST in the spring of 2017. (An archive of the meeting is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/ai/infomeeting.asp.) Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
by Carol Peterson
1) To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service, Google has put together a collection of virtual tours combining 360-degree video, panoramic photos and expert narration. It’s called “The Hidden Worlds of the National Parks” and is accessible right from the browser. You can choose from one of five different locales, including the Kenai Fjords in Alaska and Bryce Canyon in Utah, and get a guided “tour” from a local park ranger. Each one has a few virtual vistas to explore, with documentary-style voiceovers and extra media hidden behind clickable thumbnails. Ideas are included for use in classrooms. https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/25/google-offers-360-degree-tours-of-us-national-parks/. Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
CSTA is pleased to announce the winners of the 2016 CSTA Awards for Distinguished Contributions, Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, 2014 and 2015 PAEMST-Science recipients from California, and the 2016 California PAEMST Finalists. The following individuals and organizations will be honored during the 2016 California Science Education Conference on October 21- 23 in Palm Springs. This year’s group of awardees are truly outstanding. Please join us in congratulating them!
Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award
The Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award honors an individual who has made a significant contribution to science education in the state and who, through years of leadership and service, has truly made a positive impact on the quality of science teaching. This year’s recipient is John Keller, Ph.D. Dr. Keller is Associate Professor, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and Co-Director, Center for Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Education, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In her letter of recommendation, SDSU science education faculty and former CSTA board member Donna Ross wrote: “He brings people together who share the desire to make a difference in the development and implementation of programs for science teaching. Examples of these projects include the Math and Science Teaching Initiative (MSTI), Noyce Scholars Program, Western Regional Noyce Initiative, and the Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program.” Through his work, he has had a dramatic impact on science teacher education, both preservice and in-service, in California, the region, and the country. He developed and implemented the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program which aims to produce excellent K-12 STEM teachers by providing aspiring teachers with opportunities to do authentic research while helping them translate their research experience into classroom practice. SFSU faculty member Larry Horvath said it best in his letter:“John Keller exemplifies the best aspects of a scientist, science educator, and mentor. His contributions to science education in the state of California are varied, significant, and I am sure will continue well into the future.” Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Peter A’hearn
NGSS is a big shift. Teachers need to learn new content, figure out how this whole engineering thing relates to science, and develop new unit and lesson plans. How could NGSS possibly make life easier?
The idea that NGSS could make our lives easier came to me during the California State NGSS Rollout #1 Classroom Example lesson on chromatography. I have since done this lesson with high school chemistry students and it made me think back to having my own students do chromatography. I spent lots of time preparing to make sure the experiment went well and achieved the “correct” result. I pre-prepared the solutions and organized and prepped the materials. I re-wrote and re-wrote again the procedure so there was no way a kid could get it wrong. I spent 20 minutes before the lab modeling all of the steps in class, so there was no way to do it wrong. Except that it turns out there were many. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt
Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. Learn More…