January/February 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 4

Systems Thinking Skills in the Engineering Classroom

Posted: Wednesday, May 11th, 2016

by Cynthia Berger

Reprinted with permission from http://blog.eie.org/systems-thinking-skills-in-the-engineering-classroom.

The students in Jean Facchiano’s fourth-grade class have spent the morning engineering their own models of permeable membranes, using ordinary kitchen supplies like sponges, coffee filters, and perforated aluminum foil. The goal is to design a system that lets water drip into a frog habitat, keeping the container slightly damp, not dry or flooded.

Berger1.1Each group of students has come up with their own unique system for controlling water flow into the habitat. Now, in the video at right, the students present their results. It’s not just a show-and-tell; it’s a concise demonstration of elementary students starting to apply their systems-thinking skills.

Can Young Children Really Be Systems Thinkers?

Testing a permeable membrane for a frog habitat.

Testing a permeable membrane for a frog habitat.

The term “systems thinking” refers to the ability to explore and understand the relationships between a system (such as an ecosystem, weather system, or heating system) and its component parts and see the network of relationships among system components. Systems thinking is a skill that will be critical for tomorrow’s adults as they face 21st-century challenges like dealing with climate change, providing healthcare, or meeting society’s energy needs.

NascoAd

-Advertisement-

Once upon a time, educators thought that elementary-school-aged children simply weren’t capable of the abstract thought required for systems thinking. But in recent years, evidence has supported the idea that elementary students CAN apply systems thinking—and that schools should be proactive in helping students do this, because of the positive impact systems thinking has on learning.

At EiE, we consider systems thinking to be an “engineering habit of mind”—a way of thinking, developed through engagement with engineering, that builds positive learning skills for a lifetime. The new Next Generation Science Standards take this same view; they create explicit expectations that young students will apply systems thinking.

Berger2Consider that NGSS cross-cutting concepts include “patterns,” “cause and effect,” “systems and systems models,” and “flows, cycles and conservation in energy and matter.” Standards like K-ESS3-1 (“Use a model to represent the relationship between the needs of different plants or animals [including humans] and the places they live”) also presume that very young students will engage in systems thinking.

Strategies for Promoting Systems Thinking

To develop your students’ systems-thinking skills, you must move the focus of lessons beyond remembering facts and challenge students to use their skills of evaluation and invention. Hands-on engineering is ideal for engaging students in these processes.

Learn more about EiE's Engineering Habits of Mind

Learn more about EiE’s Engineering Habits of Mind

In the “engineering membranes” exercise, for example, students build their initial models based on what they’ve learned in science class about membranes and about the basic needs of live animals, like frogs, who need both air and water to survive. After the design step, they test their models to see what happens when the component parts of the system interact.

In this testing process, they can observe how elements in the system (for example, water in the habitat) change over time. They work to connect cause and effect—to understand how each component of the design has an effect on how quickly the water moves through the membrane. Finally, they must explain their results, drawing on available evidence, and predict how modifications to the design will change the way the system functions.

The Teachable Moment

Berger5In the video to the right, the teacher monitors how her students are thinking about their results, ready to push them to think more deeply. You see two students talking about membranes that failed—one membrane let too much water pass through; the other didn’t let enough water through. Both students attribute the failure to the same component in the system, and Ms. Facchiano prods them to see how these views are contradictory.

An “Improve” step is an important component of the engineering design process. The students in this class go on to redesign their membranes, based on what they understand about their systems. Watch the video above to see them reflect on that experience—and to see the excitement that engineering and systems thinking can generate.

This post originally appeared on the Engineering is Elementary® blog on 2/16/16 at http://blog.eie.org/.

Engineering is Elementary is a project of the National Center for Technological Literacy® at the Museum of Science, Boston.

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Leave a Reply

LATEST POST

STEM Conference Hosted by CMSESMC

Posted: Saturday, January 14th, 2017

The Council of Math/Science Educators of San Mateo County will be hosting the 41st annual STEM Conference this February 4, 2017 at the San Mateo County Office of Education. This STEM Conference is the place to get lots of new lessons and ideas to use in your classroom. There will be over twenty-five workshops and a variety of exhibitors that provide participants with a wide range of practical and realistic ideas and resources to use in their science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs from Pre-K to grade 12. With California’s adoption of the Common Core State Standards and the Next Generation Science Standards, we are dedicated to ensuring that we prepare our teachers to take on these educational policies.

Teachers, administrators, and parents are invited to explore the many exciting aspects of STEM education and learn about and discuss the latest news, information, and issues. This is also an opportunity to network with colleagues who can assist you in building your programs and meet new friends that share your interests and love of teaching. Register online today!

Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Submit Your NGSS Lessons and Units Today!

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

Achieve has launched and is facilitating an EQuIP Peer Review Panel for Science–a group of expert reviewers who will evaluate the quality and alignment of lessons and units to the standards–in an effort to identify and shine a spotlight on emerging high-quality lesson and unit plans designed for the NGSS.

If you or your state, district, school, or organization has designed NGSS-aligned instructional materials, please consider submitting these in order to help provide educators across the country with various models and templates of high-quality lesson and unit plans. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Opportunity for High School Students – Los Angeles County

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

An upcoming Perry Outreach Program on Saturday, April 22, 2017 at the Orthopaedic Institute for Children in Los Angeles, CA. The Perry Outreach Program is a free, one-day, hands-on experience for high school and college-aged women who are interested in pursuing careers in medicine and engineering. Students will hear from women leaders in these fields and try it for themselves by performing mock orthopaedic surgeries and biomechanics experiments. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Science Education Policy Update

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

January 2017 has proven to be a very busy month for science education policy and CA NGSS implementation activities. CSTA has been and will be there every step of the way, seeking and enacting all options to support high-quality science education and the successful implementation of CA NGSS.

California Department of Education/U.S. Department of Education Science Double-Testing Waiver Hearing

The year started with California Department of Education’s (CDE) hearing with the U.S. Department of Education conducted via WebEx on January 6, 2017. This hearing was the final step in California’s efforts to secure a waiver from the federal government in order to discontinue administration of the old CST and suspension of the reporting of student test scores on a science assessment for two years. As reported by EdSource, the U.S. Department of Education representative, Ann Whalen, a senior adviser to U.S. Secretary John King Jr., committed to making her final ruling “very shortly.” Deputy Superintendent Keric Ashley presented on behalf of CDE during the hearing and did an excellent job describing the broad-based support for this waiver in California, the rationale for the waiver, and California’s commitment to the successful implementation of a new high-quality science assessment. As previously reported, California is moving forward with its plans to administer a census pilot assessments this spring. The testing window is set to open on March 20, 2017. For more information visit New CA Science Test: What You Should Know.

Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko is CSTA’s Executive Director.

NSTA Los Angeles Conference Features Many CA Science Leaders

Posted: Friday, January 13th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

The early-bird registration rates for the 65th NSTA National Conference on Science Education in Los Angeles is just days away (ends Feb. 3). And as the early-registration deadline approaches excitement is building for what is anticipated to be the largest gathering of science educators (both California and nationwide) – with attendance expected to reach 10,000 or more. If you have never had the pleasure of attending the NSTA National Conference, I recommend you visit their website with tips for newcomers that describe the various components of the event. A conference preview is also available for download. Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko

Jessica Sawko is CSTA’s Executive Director.