The Nation’s Report Card Releases Results From an Innovative, Interactive Computer-Based Writing Assessment
Posted: Friday, September 14th, 2012
More than three-quarters of 8th- and 12th-grade students perform at or above the Basic level.
WASHINGTON (Sept. 14, 2012) – For the first time in its history, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has used computers to assess students’ writing, with national samples of 8th- and 12th-grade students. Results from NAEP—also known as The Nation’s Report Card—showed that more than 75 percent of students at grades 8 and 12 performed at or above the Basic achievement level, meaning that they have at least partial mastery of the knowledge and skills needed to communicate clearly in writing. But only about a quarter of the 8th and 12th graders wrote at or above the Proficient level, which means they demonstrate solid academic performance.
Writing in the 21st century takes many forms, many of them electronic. Therefore, the National Assessment Governing Board, which sets policy for NAEP, designed a new computer-based writing test. The new NAEP writing assessment in 2011 acknowledges the increasing role that technology plays in education. This groundbreaking large-scale assessment not only measures student writing achievement, it also tracks the extent to which students use common word-processing tools when developing their written responses. NAEP has measured writing for nearly four decades using a paper-and-pencil essay format, but the Governing Board determined that a new type of writing assessment was needed in this technology-driven age. For this innovative assessment, the Governing Board defined writing as a complex, multifaceted and purposeful act of communication that is accomplished in a variety of environments, under various constraints of time, and with a variety of language resources and technological tools.
“The pace of written communication in today’s environment reflects the transition to an information-based economy built on complexity and efficiency,” said David P. Driscoll, chairman of the Governing Board. “The Nation’s Report Card’s new computer-based design captures students’ ability to respond clearly and accurately in real-world, on-demand situations and allows NAEP to collect information about how students use technology in developing and editing their writing. These data tell us how well students are writing using the technology they will have in higher education and the workplace.”
In this first year of the computer-based writing assessment, NAEP tested national samples of 24,100 8th graders and 28,100 12th graders. New scales for grades 8 and 12 were developed separately and range from 0 to 300 with a mean set at 150 for each grade. As with all NAEP assessments, results are also reported across three achievement levels: Basic, Proficient, andAdvanced. The Basic level denotes partial mastery of the prerequisite skills and knowledge fundamental for proficient work; Proficient represents solid academic performance; and Advanced represents superior performance. Future results for grades 8 and 12 will be compared with the 2011 results to provide information on achievement trends over time. It is important to note that the 2011 results cannot be compared with previous NAEP writing assessments because of the change to a computer-based format and other new elements in the assessment design. In addition, NAEP conducted a 2012 pilot test in writing using a computer-based format for fourth-grade students. The Governing Board has determined that fourth graders will be included in future computer-based assessments in the coming years. When states have the infrastructure to support NAEP computer-based tests, they can volunteer to participate in future state-level NAEP writing assessments.
“Writing is fundamental to effective communication, especially in an era in which email and other word-processed documents are the norm rather than the exception. Our nation’s students need to write clearly, logically, and accurately. We need to focus on supporting students beyond Basic levels so that they have a solid grasp of effective writing skills,” said Driscoll.
The Governing Board’s goal is that as NAEP frameworks are revised, future NAEP assessments will be delivered via computer using interactive test questions and dynamic scenario-based tasks. The move to an entirely digital format represents an opportunity to collect data about how students use computers, and how this relates to performance on the assessment.
The Nation’s Report Card: Writing 2011 describes the assessment that includes writing situations common to both academic and workplace settings and asks students to write for various purposes and communicate to different audiences. Students were presented with a range of interactive tasks that included short video or audio segments, newspaper articles, data from real-world settings, and other materials on which to base their writing. Each student was given two writing tasks and had 30 minutes to complete each one. At both grades, students’ writing was scored on a six-point scale, ranging from “effective” to “little or no skill.” The scoring acknowledges that students are being evaluated on their first-draft writing in an “on-demand” situation and not on their final, polished pieces of writing. The purpose-driven writing assessment measures how well students develop, organize, and use language to convey ideas. At the same time, the computer-based format allows NAEP to gather data on the extent to which students use commonly available word-processing tools such as spell check, cut, and copy and paste. Click here for an example of an eighth-grade question.
One 12th-grade writing task asked students to explain to a college admissions committee why they value a specific type of technology. Students watched a short video with animations and statistics about technology use and then were asked to write an explanation of the value of technology. Students who wrote at an “effective” level developed explanations that included well-chosen details that enhanced meaning, a clear progression of ideas, precise word choices, and well-controlled sentences. Students scoring at the “adequate” level developed written explanations using some details that did not enhance the clarity or progression of ideas, while organization was somewhat loose and sentence structure was relatively simple.
Additional highlights from Writing 2011:
- Three percent of both 8th and 12th graders performed at the Advanced level.
- Twenty-four percent of students at both grades 8 and 12 performed at the Proficient level in writing.
- Fifty-four percent of 8th graders and 52 percent of 12th graders performed at the Basic level in writing.
- Twenty percent of 8th graders and 21 percent of 12th graders performed below the Basic level.
- The eighth-grade average score was higher for Asian students than for other racial/ethnic groups.
- At grade 12, White students, Asian students, and students of two or more races performed similarly to one another.
- At both grades, Black and Hispanic students had lower average scores than White students, Asian students, and students of two or more races, and female students outscored male students.
- At both grades, students who used the backspace key and thesaurus tool more frequently scored higher than those who engaged in these actions less frequently.
- English language learners were less likely to use the thesaurus tool than non-English language learners.
- Twelfth-grade students who write four to five pages a week for English language arts homework score higher than those who write fewer pages.
- The average writing score for grade 8 students attending public schools was 16 points lower than the average score for students attending private schools, and 18 points lower than students in Catholic schools.
Posted: Wednesday, October 12th, 2016
by Jessica Sawko
In June 2016 California submitted a waiver application to discontinue using the old CST (based on 1998 standards) and conduct two years of pilot and field tests (in spring 2017 and 2018, respectively) of the new science assessment designed to support our state’s current science standards (California Next Generation Science Standards (CA-NGSS) adopted in 2013). The waiver was requested because no student scores will be provided as a part of the pilot and field tests. The CDE received a response from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on September 30, 2016, which provides the CDE the opportunity to resubmit a revised waiver request within 60 days. The CDE will be revising the waiver request and resubmitting as ED suggested.
At its October 2016 North/South Assessment meetings CDE confirmed that there will be no administration of the old CST in the spring of 2017. (An archive of the meeting is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/ai/infomeeting.asp.) Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
by Carol Peterson
1) To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service, Google has put together a collection of virtual tours combining 360-degree video, panoramic photos and expert narration. It’s called “The Hidden Worlds of the National Parks” and is accessible right from the browser. You can choose from one of five different locales, including the Kenai Fjords in Alaska and Bryce Canyon in Utah, and get a guided “tour” from a local park ranger. Each one has a few virtual vistas to explore, with documentary-style voiceovers and extra media hidden behind clickable thumbnails. Ideas are included for use in classrooms. https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/25/google-offers-360-degree-tours-of-us-national-parks/. Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
CSTA is pleased to announce the winners of the 2016 CSTA Awards for Distinguished Contributions, Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, 2014 and 2015 PAEMST-Science recipients from California, and the 2016 California PAEMST Finalists. The following individuals and organizations will be honored during the 2016 California Science Education Conference on October 21- 23 in Palm Springs. This year’s group of awardees are truly outstanding. Please join us in congratulating them!
Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award
The Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award honors an individual who has made a significant contribution to science education in the state and who, through years of leadership and service, has truly made a positive impact on the quality of science teaching. This year’s recipient is John Keller, Ph.D. Dr. Keller is Associate Professor, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and Co-Director, Center for Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Education, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In her letter of recommendation, SDSU science education faculty and former CSTA board member Donna Ross wrote: “He brings people together who share the desire to make a difference in the development and implementation of programs for science teaching. Examples of these projects include the Math and Science Teaching Initiative (MSTI), Noyce Scholars Program, Western Regional Noyce Initiative, and the Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program.” Through his work, he has had a dramatic impact on science teacher education, both preservice and in-service, in California, the region, and the country. He developed and implemented the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program which aims to produce excellent K-12 STEM teachers by providing aspiring teachers with opportunities to do authentic research while helping them translate their research experience into classroom practice. SFSU faculty member Larry Horvath said it best in his letter:“John Keller exemplifies the best aspects of a scientist, science educator, and mentor. His contributions to science education in the state of California are varied, significant, and I am sure will continue well into the future.” Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Peter A’hearn
NGSS is a big shift. Teachers need to learn new content, figure out how this whole engineering thing relates to science, and develop new unit and lesson plans. How could NGSS possibly make life easier?
The idea that NGSS could make our lives easier came to me during the California State NGSS Rollout #1 Classroom Example lesson on chromatography. I have since done this lesson with high school chemistry students and it made me think back to having my own students do chromatography. I spent lots of time preparing to make sure the experiment went well and achieved the “correct” result. I pre-prepared the solutions and organized and prepped the materials. I re-wrote and re-wrote again the procedure so there was no way a kid could get it wrong. I spent 20 minutes before the lab modeling all of the steps in class, so there was no way to do it wrong. Except that it turns out there were many. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt
Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. Learn More…