The Seven AP Science Practices: Practice Seven
Posted: Wednesday, May 1st, 2013
by Bethany Dixon
The College Board has released seven science practices that will be shared through the disciplines. (Note: these are not to be confused with the NGSS “Science and Engineering Practices” from the Framework for K-12 Science Education.) The new Advanced Placement Curriculum Framework for AP Biology began this year, with plans for revamping AP Chemistry (2013-2014) and AP Physics (2014-2015) on the horizon. The new frameworks give students a chance to hone their skills at the lab bench, which is crucial for their success with the new AP Science Examinations and the upcoming transition to NGSS. Here is the third installment of the seven practices overview, with use-them-now tips for your classroom. The first six science practices can be found in our February issue of eCCS, March issue of eCCS, and April issue of eCCS.
7. CONNECT AND RELATE knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations.
Connecting across scales and representations is frequently done in science classrooms by building concept maps and flow charts. As we reach the countdown to the AP Biology Exam (May 13th), review activities that include science practices work to build comprehension and help enhance student understanding of practices. The following are two strategies for implementing science practice seven in your classroom.
Practice seven asks students to make connections of scale, across disciplines, and within timeframes. One potential way to accomplish this is by dividing students into groups of four and giving each student a copy of the Big Idea Framework that contains the Essential Knowledge for each Big Idea. Have students cut out the Essential Knowledge and “play” a piece of knowledge by giving an illustrative example that pertains to their knowledge. The next student must link their card to the previous card, lay their piece of the framework on top of the one played, and explain how it connects and provide their own illustrative example. For instance, student one has Big Idea 1 and plays: 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by scientific evidence from many disciplines, including mathematics; they link it to the example of graphing allele frequencies in a population. The next student links graphing allele frequencies to Big Idea 4: The level of variation in a population affects population dynamics and gives the example of Wheat Rust, opening the game to the next player. The player who gets rid of their cards the fastest first, wins.
One of my biology teacher heroes, Paul Andersen, (Montana Teacher of the Year, YouTube Guru, and flip-teaching wizard, plays a game with his students based on “The Wiki Game,” to build connections within text. This can be another great strategy to achieve Science Parctice 7. Students read and race through Wikipedia articles with specific curriculum goals in mind, searching for connections and clicking on key words to link concepts together. As they read they keep track of their linking strategies and number of clicks to get from the beginning to the end of a teacher-created sequence. For example, students attempting to follow the path from Peppered Moth→Feedback→Cellulose→Himalayan Rabbit . Paul Andersen did it in 36 clicks, my trip took 34, but I admit that I used the “search” button and worked backwards at one time: see the “Dixon’s trip” included at the bottom of this article. Using this method, students travel from the first term to the second, for example linking a “Peppered Moth” article to an “Evolution” article by finding specific links within Wikipedia to carry them from one to the next, then to another, until they reach the final content item.
The goal is to reach Science Practice 7: Connect and relate knowledge across various scales, concepts, and representations. This practice is broken down into two parts: connecting phenomena and models across spatial and temporal scales, and connecting concepts in and across domain(s) to generalize or extrapolate in (and/or across) enduring understandings/big ideas. Wikipedia provides opportunities for both of these parts, but it’s important for students to keep track of their reasoning. As they click through the sequence, require your students to keep a separate page describing what they clicked and WHY it links to the next concept. Students are challenged to watch for citations at the bottom of each page. Wikipedia has come a long way in the last few years, and there are educational uses for it that include helping students to link content and to expand on their information. In my search I found myself reading up on alfalfa, (I didn’t know most varieties are tetraploid!), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins – things I wouldn’t have linked with feedback loops initially. This illustrates the risk that students might become enthralled with the wealth of information and go off-task. Setting a time limit insures that students are on-task and not overwhelmed. Breaking each link into pairs or groups and challenging students to get from one to the other with the fewest clicks can also make the game move faster.
AP Connections via Wikipedia Practice #7: Dixon’s Trip:
Peppered Moth→Feedback→Cellulose→Himalayan Rabbit
Peppered Moth to Evolution to Carrying Capacity to Evolution to Metabolic Pathways to Circadian Rhythm to Hypothalamus to Oxytocin to Feedback Loop to Insulin Oscillations to Downregulation and Upregulation to Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins to Cytochrome P450 to Vitamin D to Alfalfa to Legumes to Cattle to Cellulose to Termites to Insects to Fly to Drosophilidae to Drosophila melanogaster to Phenotype to Thomas Hunt Morgan to Zoology to Classification to Evolutionary Taxonomy to Animal Kingdom to Mammals to Lagomorpha to Leporidae to European Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) to Angora Rabbits to Himalayan Rabbit
AP Biology Wiki Game for Science Practice 7:
Except where otherwise noted, any player breaking these rules automatically forfeits the game.
DO NOT use the Wiki search box.
DO NOT use any of the links outside of the page’s contents. The contents of a page are demarcated by gray lines that intersect to make the page box. DO NOT click (for example) “Help,” “Donations,” “Related Changes,” “Category…” etc.
DO NOT visit external websites, you must stay within the bounds of Wikipedia.
DO NOT use the backspace or back arrow to return to a previous page. History is bunk in the Wiki Game (unless a referee or an opponent demands a recount).
DO NOT click on dates e.g. 2001, as these pages are too broad to pose a challenge.
DO NOT employ automated search tools to find a path for you.
DO NOT edit the start page to insert a link to the home page.
DO NOT use the ctrl +F function to search for words.
DO NOT use countries e.g. UK, Canada, United States.
DO make connections using the links of Wikipedia (as few as possible) to get from one concept to another.
DO write connection paths and challenge others to find them.
DO link Big Ideas, Enduring Understandings, and Essential Knowledge together within your puzzle.
DO have your AP Biology Big Ideas and Enduring Understandings Handy
DO record an answer sheet.
Example Task: Link from Peppered Moth→Feedback→Cellulose→Himalayan Rabbit
How many links did it take? __________
Task 1: Link from Conserved Core Processes of Evolution →Josiah Willard Gibbs→Stomata→Global Warming
Task 2:Link from Henrietta Lacks→Enzymes→Sickle-Cell Disease→Evolution
Task 3:Create two pathways of your own linking enduring understandings within two of the four Big Ideas.
Task 4:Create two pathways of your own linking enduring understandings between two Big Ideas.
Posted: Wednesday, October 12th, 2016
by Jessica Sawko
In June 2016 California submitted a waiver application to discontinue using the old CST (based on 1998 standards) and conduct two years of pilot and field tests (in spring 2017 and 2018, respectively) of the new science assessment designed to support our state’s current science standards (California Next Generation Science Standards (CA-NGSS) adopted in 2013). The waiver was requested because no student scores will be provided as a part of the pilot and field tests. The CDE received a response from the U.S. Department of Education (ED) on September 30, 2016, which provides the CDE the opportunity to resubmit a revised waiver request within 60 days. The CDE will be revising the waiver request and resubmitting as ED suggested.
At its October 2016 North/South Assessment meetings CDE confirmed that there will be no administration of the old CST in the spring of 2017. (An archive of the meeting is available at http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/ai/infomeeting.asp.) Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
by Carol Peterson
1) To celebrate the 100th anniversary of the National Park Service, Google has put together a collection of virtual tours combining 360-degree video, panoramic photos and expert narration. It’s called “The Hidden Worlds of the National Parks” and is accessible right from the browser. You can choose from one of five different locales, including the Kenai Fjords in Alaska and Bryce Canyon in Utah, and get a guided “tour” from a local park ranger. Each one has a few virtual vistas to explore, with documentary-style voiceovers and extra media hidden behind clickable thumbnails. Ideas are included for use in classrooms. https://www.engadget.com/2016/08/25/google-offers-360-degree-tours-of-us-national-parks/. Learn More…
Posted: Thursday, September 22nd, 2016
CSTA is pleased to announce the winners of the 2016 CSTA Awards for Distinguished Contributions, Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, 2014 and 2015 PAEMST-Science recipients from California, and the 2016 California PAEMST Finalists. The following individuals and organizations will be honored during the 2016 California Science Education Conference on October 21- 23 in Palm Springs. This year’s group of awardees are truly outstanding. Please join us in congratulating them!
Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award
The Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award honors an individual who has made a significant contribution to science education in the state and who, through years of leadership and service, has truly made a positive impact on the quality of science teaching. This year’s recipient is John Keller, Ph.D. Dr. Keller is Associate Professor, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo and Co-Director, Center for Engineering, Science, and Mathematics Education, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo. In her letter of recommendation, SDSU science education faculty and former CSTA board member Donna Ross wrote: “He brings people together who share the desire to make a difference in the development and implementation of programs for science teaching. Examples of these projects include the Math and Science Teaching Initiative (MSTI), Noyce Scholars Program, Western Regional Noyce Initiative, and the Science Teacher and Researcher (STAR) program.” Through his work, he has had a dramatic impact on science teacher education, both preservice and in-service, in California, the region, and the country. He developed and implemented the STEM Teacher and Researcher Program which aims to produce excellent K-12 STEM teachers by providing aspiring teachers with opportunities to do authentic research while helping them translate their research experience into classroom practice. SFSU faculty member Larry Horvath said it best in his letter:“John Keller exemplifies the best aspects of a scientist, science educator, and mentor. His contributions to science education in the state of California are varied, significant, and I am sure will continue well into the future.” Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Peter A’hearn
NGSS is a big shift. Teachers need to learn new content, figure out how this whole engineering thing relates to science, and develop new unit and lesson plans. How could NGSS possibly make life easier?
The idea that NGSS could make our lives easier came to me during the California State NGSS Rollout #1 Classroom Example lesson on chromatography. I have since done this lesson with high school chemistry students and it made me think back to having my own students do chromatography. I spent lots of time preparing to make sure the experiment went well and achieved the “correct” result. I pre-prepared the solutions and organized and prepped the materials. I re-wrote and re-wrote again the procedure so there was no way a kid could get it wrong. I spent 20 minutes before the lab modeling all of the steps in class, so there was no way to do it wrong. Except that it turns out there were many. Learn More…
Posted: Tuesday, September 20th, 2016
by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graph of evening planet setting times by Dr. Jeffrey L. Hunt
Our evening twilight chart for September, depicting the sky about 40 minutes after sunset from SoCal, shows brilliant Venus remaining low, creeping from W to WSW and gaining a little altitude as the month progresses. Its close encounter within 2.5° N of Spica on Sept. 18 is best seen with binoculars to catch the star low in bright twilight. The brightest stars in the evening sky are golden Arcturus descending in the west, and blue-white Vega passing just north of overhead. Look for Altair and Deneb completing the Summer Triangle with Vega. The triangle of Mars-Saturn-Antares expands as Mars seems to hold nearly stationary in SSW as the month progresses, while Saturn and Antares slink off to the SW. Learn More…