May/June 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 7

The Seven Science Practices: Practices Five and Six

Posted: Monday, April 1st, 2013

by Bethany Dixon

The College Board has released seven science practices that will be shared through the disciplines. (Note: these are not to be confused with the NGSS “Science and Engineering Practices” from the Framework for K-12 Science Education.) The new Advanced Placement Curriculum Framework for AP Biology began this year, with plans for revamping AP Chemistry (2013-2014) and AP Physics (2014-2015) on the horizon. The new frameworks give students a chance to hone their skills at the lab bench, which is crucial for their success with the new AP Science Examinations and the upcoming transition to NGSS. Here is the third installment of the seven practices overview, with use-them-now tips for your classroom. The first four science practices can be found in our February and March issues of eCCS.

PRACTICE 5: Perform DATA ANALYSIS and evaluation of evidence.

As you consider this practice, the AP Biology Teacher Community is an invaluable resource for seasoned and new teachers alike. Here, you can gain insight from course veterans and AP Biology superstars like Paul Anderson of Bozeman Biology and Ann Brokaw of HHMI resource fame, just to name two of the hundreds of talented teachers who contribute.  Last spring with the new curriculum on the horizon, the teacher chat boards lit up with questions about “The New Math,” or more specifically, how to best incorporate statistics into their newly designed courses. Teachers from all over the nation weighed in and have been assembling resources at an impressive clip. A valuable addition that came out midway through the year is the new College Board “Quantitative Skills Guide.” This 114-page document provides teaching strategies and underscores the mission of the new curriculum. The Guide recommends instruction that ensures students are “able to recognize which data support a conclusion and are able to assess experimental validity and possible sources of error and propose explanations for them,” (College Board, 2012). It further cites Bio2010, the seminal 2003 report on undergraduate biology education aimed at enhancing and integrating science education.

But pedagogic revolution aside, what can WE do as teachers to increase student learning in regards to Data Analysis? The short answer is provide practice, which requires less number-crunching than a general statistics class and more working toward a deep understanding of setting up a valid experiment, especially understanding the concept of rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis. This comes back to articulating what reliable data looks like and how scientists talk about data. Crunching the formulas won’t be enough for student success. Using statistics on bad data is like doing an autopsy to try to find a medical cure: we can find out where the experiment died, but we can’t fix it. Students must go into their investigations understanding what they plan to measure and why they plan to measure it. The new grid-in questions on the AP Biology exam will require students to display their ability to use data analysis to determine standard deviation, standard error, mean, and chi-square, but the multiple-choice questions may ask students to determine whether errors in analysis or measurement may have taken place. The Guide breaks this down into teaching Graphing, Data Analysis, Hypothesis Testing, and Mathematical Modeling.

If your last statistics class was years ago and you weren’t in a stats-heavy field such as ecology or systematics, I highly recommend the free-to-download, “Handbook of Biological Statistics,” from John McDonald at the University of Delaware. His biology-friendly guide is a breath of fresh air and comes with the kind of patient, understanding tone that I hope to emulate with my students. Data analysis is intimidating for some students, but we mustn’t allow AP Biology to be a haven for math-a-phobes: mathematics is quickly becoming biology’s most powerful tool. Ensure that your students have the data analysis tools that they need for success both within and beyond the course by introducing statistics early, often, and with enthusiasm.

PRACTICE 6: Work with scientific EXPLANATIONS AND THEORIES.

The new curriculum does an exemplary job of involving students in scientific inquiry, and science practice number six is what students can use to connect their laboratory investigations and content standards. After their experiments, when data has been carefully analyzed, students will need to have plenty of practice making the jump from analyzed data to scientific explanations and theories. This frequently begins with giving students the opportunity to make scientific claims, link their claims to evidence, and then explain the reasoning that led them from evidence to claim.

One of my favorite strategies is the, “What I see, What it means,” graph-labeling technique from BSCS. Students label key points on their graphs and explain specifically what is occurring. For example, “What I see is that the prey population declines first and predator population later shows a decline, and what it means is that the relationships between the two populations are related, with predator population limited by the amount of prey.” I like to have students use sticky notes to use “What I see, what it means,” on both their own graphs and those from other students to see if they come up with the same claims based on identical evidence.

Students frequently feel that once they’ve graphed their data the results are obvious, and they move to writing conclusions before they’ve carefully considered their data, jumping to show what they believed “should” have happened in the lab instead of accurately reporting what DID happen.  Using student-made graphs for peer review provides more practice on data interpretation for their exam. It’s fascinating, (and frequently entertaining), to watch different groups of highly intelligent students make different conjectures based on the same evidence. In lab discussions it’s the group with the best ability to link their reasoning to the claim and the accepted scientific theories that we’re studying in lecture that is best able to come up with ideas to support their claims further. Watching young scientists go back to their textbooks to find ideas to support their claim and look for further opportunities to test their findings and see them validated by classmates brings electricity to the laboratory. Questions about how to “take it further” can engage your students in the excitement of research.  (What evidence would you need to convince you that the other group’s claim was correct? To refute your claim? Design an experiment and let’s test it!)  Teaching students to articulate their reasoning and link their claims to evidence is only half of the game, though. Students must next be able to explain what Big Ideas of biology are embedded in their results. What major theories are supported by their work? How does their work fit into the spectrum of the class? Does anything in their results seem to go against the accepted body of knowledge, and if so, what factors might attribute to this? Most importantly, students should be encouraged to investigate WHY theories have become what they are and to notice where science still has open questions. It’s invigorating to see how many questions that biology currently has open. Emphasize to students that there are exciting opportunities in biology and that these questions can be answered by actively pursuing research. AP Biology students frequently come into the subject wide-eyed about the exciting material they will study in our course; it’s up to teachers to sustain that initial enthusiasm and extend it to the process of science as well as the content so that students leave the course empowered with the understanding that not only can they understand biology, they can add to it.

Written by Bethany Dixon

Bethany Dixon is a science teacher at Western Sierra Collegiate Academy, is a CSTA Publications Committee Member, and is a member of CSTA.

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CSTA Annual Conference Early Bird Rates End July 14

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Jessica Sawko

Teachers engaged in workshop activity

Teachers engaging in hands-on learning during a workshop at the 2016 CSTA conference.

Don’t miss your chance to register at the early bird rate for the 2017 CSTA Conference – the early-bird rate closes July 14. Need ideas on how to secure funding for your participation? Visit our website for suggestions, a budget planning tool, and downloadable justification letter to share with your admin. Want to take advantage of the early rate – but know your district will pay eventually? Register online today and CSTA will reimburse you when we receive payment from your district/employer. (For more information on how that works contact Zi Stair in the office for details – 916-979-7004 or zi@cascience.org.)

New Information Now Available On-line:

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Goodbye Outgoing and Welcome Incoming CSTA Board Members

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

Jill Grace

Jill Grace, CSTA President, 2017-2019

On July 1, 2017 five CSTA members concluded their service and four new board members joined the ranks of the CSTA Board of Directors. CSTA is so grateful for all the volunteer board of directors who contribute hours upon hours of time and energy to advance the work of the association. At the June 3 board meeting, CSTA was able to say goodbye to the outgoing board members and welcome the incoming members.

This new year also brings with it a new president for CSTA. As of July 1, 2017 Jill Grace is the president of the California Science Teachers Association. Jill is a graduate of California State University, Long Beach, a former middle school science teacher, and is currently a Regional Director with the K-12 Alliance @ WestEd where she works with California NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative districts and charter networks in the San Diego area.

Outgoing Board Members

  • Laura Henriques (President-Elect: 2011 – 2013, President: 2013 – 2015, Past President: 2015 – 2017)
  • Valerie Joyner (Region 1 Director: 2009 – 2013, Primary Director: 2013 – 2017)
  • Mary Whaley (Informal Science Education Director: 2013 – 2017)
  • Sue Campbell (Middle School/Jr. High Director: 2015 – 2017)
  • Marcus Tessier (2-Year College Director: 2015 – 2017)

Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Finding My Student’s Motivation of Learning Through Engineering Tasks

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Huda Ali Gubary and Susheela Nath

It’s 8:02 and the bell rings. My students’ walk in and pick up an entry ticket based on yesterday’s lesson and homework. My countdown starts for students to begin…3, 2, 1. Ten students are on task and diligently completing the work, twenty are off task with behaviors ranging from talking up a storm with their neighbors to silently staring off into space. This was the start of my classes, more often than not. My students rarely showed the enthusiasm for a class that I had eagerly prepared for. I spent so much time searching for ways to get my students excited about the concepts they were learning. I wanted them to feel a connection to the lessons and come into my class motivated about what they were going to learn next. I would ask myself how I could make my class memorable where the kids were in the driver’s seat of learning. Incorporating engineering made this possible. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

State Schools Chief Tom Torlakson Unveils Updated Recommended Literature List

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

SACRAMENTO—State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson unveiled an addition of 285 award-winning titles to the Recommended Literature: Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve list.

“The books our students read help broaden their perspectives, enhance their knowledge, and fire their imaginations,” Torlakson said. “The addition of these award-winning titles represents the state’s continued commitment to the interests and engagement of California’s young readers.”

The Recommended Literature: Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve list is a collection of more than 8,000 titles of recommended reading for children and adolescents. Reflecting contemporary and classic titles, including California authors, this online list provides an exciting range of literature that students should be reading at school and for pleasure. Works include fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama to provide for a variety of tastes, interests, and abilities. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Teaching Science in the Time of Alternative Facts – Why NGSS Can Help (somewhat)

Posted: Wednesday, July 12th, 2017

by Peter A’Hearn

The father of one of my students gave me a book: In the Beginning: Compelling Evidence for Creation and the Flood by Walt Brown, Ph. D. He had heard that I was teaching Plate Tectonics and wanted me to consider another perspective. The book offered the idea that the evidence for plate tectonics could be better understood if we considered the idea that beneath the continent of Pangaea was a huge underground layer of water that suddenly burst forth from a rift between the now continents of Africa and South America. The waters shot up and the continents hydroplaned apart on the water layer to their current positions. The force of the movement pushed up great mountain ranges which are still settling to this day, resulting in earthquakes along the margins of continents. This had happened about 6,000 years ago and created a great worldwide flood. Learn More…

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Written by Peter AHearn

Peter AHearn

Peter A’Hearn is the Region 4 Director for CSTA.