May/June 2017 – Vol. 29 No. 7

Three Examples of Science Education Leaders (at least by my definition of leadership)

Posted: Monday, June 20th, 2016

by Joseph Calmer

Whenever I think about leadership I mentally cut away to various scenes in Office Space. I think too often ‘leadership’ and ‘boss’ are mistakenly used interchangeably. It is probably too common in schools to simply tell teachers what to do (i.e. the old standards) rather than build support of a vision that teachers will (collectively) work towards (i.e. the NGSS standards). For too long science teachers were simply told what to teach.

The problem is, that is not leadership (at least not in my mind). For me, I can differentiate titles from leadership. Yes, there is a chain of command that gives guidance and structure to an organization. But I think that a person who simply has more power than me is not necessarily my leader. The difference between authority and leadership isn’t often thought about or discussed; maybe they are too often even mistaken for the same thing.

I have worked for a long time in education. I think this has mainly occurred because I am compliant. I have always had a boss and I have always done what has been asked of me. As more years have passed, I have taken on more jobs and have had many more persons to work under. Upon reflection, I don’t know if I would call them “my leader.” I would agree with what their visions were and follow them and their directions…

That begs the next question: who would I call a leader? To me, I think a leader is a person that has influenced me and motivated me to perform better. I would think of a leader as a person who has an idea and a vision that is attractive to their followers that enables one to complete work and tasks to perform that vision. An example that quickly comes to mind is Richard Feynman.

The name “Richard Feynman” has a lot of recognition. I have read and listened to many of his books, lectures, and books about him (Burkhart, 2013; Feynman, 1985; Feynman & Ebrary, 2011; Feynman, Leighton, & Sands, 1965; O’Brien). I have found that he has a deep passion for solving puzzles and figuring things out. Almost equally, he has a passion for having students learn science. Despite being a physicist, he was very interested in the process of scientific thought and how people understand science (and the nature of things). I absorb his every word and sat in his famous Cal Tech lecture hall (for different lectures) in a state of awe and understanding of his historical significance.

Feynman is a person I would call a leader because of his ideals and how they and how they have permeated science teaching. At least for me, he is a leader of science instruction because his ideas and influenced have endured. I think he ought to be given a chance by those who have only heard about him and maybe judge him on those stories (out of context). Often his off-beat jokes and trickster-like nature have overshadowed his true impact and legacy.

Along those lines, Norwood Russell Hanson wrote a book called Patterns of Discovery ((N. R. Hanson & Paul F. Schmidt, 1959). In that book, he wrote chapter called “Observation.” That chapter gives a story Brahe and Kepler discussing their observation of the sun. Since they are geocentric and heliocentric, respectively, they do not “see” the same thing; one sees the sun moving around the Earth and the other sees the Earth moving around the sun. His text has permeated my thoughts since my undergrad years. NR Hanson has had a long lasting impact on my thoughts about science and education. He clearly told me about perspectives, now we understand the nature of learning and recognize terms like “prior knowledge,” “conceptual frameworks,” “metacognition,” and “constructivism.” To me, he was the first, but he didn’t explicitly talk about science education, but he sort of was because, unlike other subjects, to learn science, you have to do science. He was helping scientists learn to do science.

Another leader that comes to mind is my late Philosophy of Science professor, Dr. Paul Tang. I was unable to share my thoughts with him, since his teachings and insight affected me more after his class and I was reintroduced to the ideas of science that he originally gave me. Dr. Tang could take a written sentence and spend the next 45 minutes giving the context, history, and purpose of those written words. For example, a sentence could read: “The Eddington Experiment found…” and he would begin talking about the expedition, the set up, what they were looking for, how it affect Relativity, and on and on. Despite these tangents, his class was never boring. It will probably be the only time I write a final about confirmation, crows, and Popper (Popper, 1968). Since I can’t remove his teachings and enlightenments from my everyday science teaching experience, he is a leader by my definition.

So, I think leadership comes not from those with titles and constructed their authority by compliance. I think leaders are people with ideas that simply motivate and cause effects through their words and actions. Often, the people whose sole tool is thought that cause actions and motivate thinking are teachers, specifically science teachers. The words and actions we use will cause a cascade of events that will influence future pupils to act, create, and change things. To me, leadership is not a title, but a sphere of influence that permeates those who choose to follow and work towards that vision. This where NGSS falls into perspective, the Framework has created a vision for science teachers to work towards.


  • Burkhart, J. F. (2013). Feynman, Richard P.: Feynman’s tips on physics: reflections, advice, insights, practice: a problem-solving supplement to The Feynman lectures on physics (Vol. 51, pp. 119): American Library Association CHOICE.
  • Feynman, R. P. (1985). QED: the strange theory of light and matter. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.
  • Feynman, R. P., & ebrary, I. (2011). Six not-so-easy pieces: Einstein’s relativity, symmetry, and space-time. New York: Basics Books.
  • Feynman, R. P., Leighton, R. B., & Sands, M. (1965). The Feynman Lectures on Physics; Vol. I. American Journal of Physics, 33(9), 750-752. doi:10.1119/1.1972241
  • N.R. Hanson, A., & Paul F. Schmidt, R. (1959). Patterns of Discovery. American Journal of Physics, 27(4), 285. doi:10.1119/1.1934835
  • O’Brien, M. (Producer). (11/22/2015). Richard Feynman: Fun to Imagine. Fun to Imagine Collection. Retrieved from
  • Popper, K. R. (1968). Conjectures and refutations: the growth of scientific knowledge. New York U6 – ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&ctx_enc=info%3Aofi%2Fenc%3AUTF-8&rfr_id=info:sid/ U7 – Book: Harper & Row.

Joseph Calmer, Ed.D, is a Physics and Chemistry Teacher at Lawndale High School.

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Participate in Chemistry Education Research Study, Earn $500-800 Dollars!

Posted: Tuesday, May 9th, 2017

WestEd, a non-profit educational research agency, has been funded by the US Department of Education to test a new molecular modeling kit, Happy Atoms. Happy Atoms is an interactive chemistry learning experience that consists of a set of physical atoms that connect magnetically to form molecules, and an app that uses image recognition to identify the molecules that you create with the set. WestEd is conducting a study around the effectiveness of using Happy Atoms in the classroom, and we are looking for high school chemistry teachers in California to participate.

As part of the study, teachers will be randomly assigned to either the treatment group (who uses Happy Atoms) or the control group (who uses Happy Atoms at a later date). Teachers in the treatment group will be asked to use the Happy Atoms set in their classrooms for 5 lessons over the course of the fall 2017 semester. Students will complete pre- and post-assessments and surveys around their chemistry content knowledge and beliefs about learning chemistry. WestEd will provide access to all teacher materials, teacher training, and student materials needed to participate.

Participating teachers will receive a stipend of $500-800. You can read more information about the study here:

Please contact Rosanne Luu at or 650.381.6432 if you are interested in participating in this opportunity, or if you have any questions!

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

2018 Science Instructional Materials Adoption Reviewer Application

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

The California Department of Education and State Board of Education are now accepting applications for reviewers for the 2018 Science Instructional Materials Adoption. The application deadline is 3:00 pm, July 21, 2017. The application is comprehensive, so don’t wait until the last minute to apply.

On Tuesday, May 9, 2017, State Superintendent Tom Torlakson forwarded this recruitment letter to county and district superintendents and charter school administrators.

Review panel members will evaluate instructional materials for use in kindergarten through grade eight, inclusive, that are aligned with the California Next Generation Science Content Standards for California Public Schools (CA NGSS). Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Lessons Learned from the NGSS Early Implementer Districts

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

On March 31, 2017, Achieve released two documents examining some lessons learned from the California K-8 Early Implementation Initiative. The initiative began in August 2014 and was developed by the K-12 Alliance at WestEd, with close collaborative input on its design and objectives from the State Board of Education, the California Department of Education, and Achieve.

Eight (8) traditional school districts and two (2) charter management organizations were selected to participate in the initiative, becoming the first districts in California to implement the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Those districts included Galt Joint Union Elementary, Kings Canyon Joint Unified, Lakeside Union, Oakland Unified, Palm Springs Unified, San Diego Unified, Tracy Joint Unified, Vista Unified, Aspire, and High Tech High.

To more closely examine some of the early successes and challenges experienced by the Early Implementer LEAs, Achieve interviewed nine of the ten participating districts and compiled that information into two resources, focusing primarily on professional learning and instructional materials. Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Using Online Simulations to Support the NGSS in Middle School Classrooms

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

by Lesley Gates, Loren Nikkel, and Kambria Eastham

Middle school teachers in Kings Canyon Unified School District (KCUSD), a CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative district, have been diligently working on transitioning to the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) integrated model for middle school. This year, the teachers focused on building their own knowledge of the Science and Engineering Practices (SEPs). They have been gathering and sharing ideas at monthly collaborative meetings as to how to make sure their students are not just learning about science but that they are actually doing science in their classrooms. Students should be planning and carrying out investigations to gather data for analysis in order to construct explanations. This is best done through hands-on lab experiments. Experimental work is such an important part of the learning of science and education research shows that students learn better and retain more when they are active through inquiry, investigation, and application. A Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011) notes, “…learning about science and engineering involves integration of the knowledge of scientific explanations (i.e., content knowledge) and the practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design. Thus the framework seeks to illustrate how knowledge and practice must be intertwined in designing learning experiences in K-12 Science Education” (pg. 11).

Many middle school teachers in KCUSD are facing challenges as they begin implementing these student-driven, inquiry-based NGSS science experiences in their classrooms. First, many of the middle school classrooms at our K-8 school sites are not designed as science labs. Learn More…

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Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the NGSS Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

Celestial Highlights: May – July 2017

Posted: Monday, May 8th, 2017

May Through July 2017 with Web Resources for the Solar Eclipse of August 21, 2017

by Robert C. Victor. Twilight sky maps by Robert D. Miller. Graphs of planet rising and setting times by Jeffrey L. Hunt.

In spring and summer 2017, Jupiter is the most prominent “star” in the evening sky, and Venus, even brighter, rules the morning. By mid-June, Saturn rises at a convenient evening hour, allowing both giant planets to be viewed well in early evening until Jupiter sinks low in late September. The Moon is always a crescent in its monthly encounters with Venus, but is full whenever it appears near Jupiter or Saturn in the eastern evening sky opposite the Sun. (In 2017, Full Moon is near Jupiter in April, Saturn in June.) At intervals of 27-28 days thereafter, the Moon appears at a progressively earlier phase at each pairing with the outer planet until its final conjunction, with Moon a thin crescent, low in the west at dusk. You’ll see many beautiful events by just following the Moon’s wanderings at dusk and dawn in the three months leading up to the solar eclipse. Learn More…

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Written by Robert Victor

Robert Victor

Robert C. Victor was Staff Astronomer at Abrams Planetarium, Michigan State University. He is now retired and enjoys providing skywatching opportunities for school children in and around Palm Springs, CA. Robert is a member of CSTA.