January/February 2018 – Vol. 31 No. 2

Using the NGSS to Teach the Nature of Science

Posted: Monday, October 19th, 2015

By Lawrence Flammer, ENSI Webmaster

Do you know what misconceptions about science your students have? Surveys have revealed a low level of science literacy in our nation for many decades. A recent National Science Foundation survey (NSF 2014) shows us that only a high of 26% of Americans (in 2001) understood what studying something scientifically means, and that low number has even declined since then. Wide support and belief in “alternative medicine,” (unscientific medicine) and many other pseudosciences, are still very much alive.

We also see continuing problems with understanding and acceptance of scientific concepts that seem controversial to many, issues like climate change, vaccinations, and evolution. Many people don’t realize that such controversies are typically socio-political, not scientific. It is clear that our general population is sadly ignorant about how science really works. When we probe more deeply, it turns out that an accurate understanding of the nature of science (NOS) is fundamental to making those distinctions. According to the Framework for K-1 Science Education (NRC 2012, pp. 78-79), memorizing (or even experiencing) “The Scientific Method” myth doesn’t do it.

The Framework acknowledged the importance of the nature of science in its statement “…there is a strong consensus about characteristics of [NOS] that should be understood by an educated citizen.” NOS is “… knowledge of the constructs and values that are intrinsic to science. Students need to understand what is meant, for example, by an observation, a hypothesis, an inference, a model, a theory, or a claim and be able to distinguish among them.” Furthermore, there is ample evidence that many people do not recognize the realm, the limits, or the social context of science. Just what can science do, and what can it not do? How does science happen? Why is science more reliable than any other way of knowing?

What do your students understand about the nature of science? Do they know what it is? Do they know what it includes? Where do your students learn about NOS? Is it presented accurately in their science textbooks? Do you teach NOS explicitly, or are your students supposed to pick it up while doing inquiry labs, taking notes in your lectures, and watching your science demonstrations?

The Nature of Science in the NGSS

The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States, 2013), was developed to provide specific standards that reflect the broad set of expectations outlined in the Framework. While the bulk of the NGSS addresses specific aspects of the Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs), it also sets aside an important section (Appendix H) that focuses on key features of the nature of science.

Table 1. Categories (or Themes) For Nature of Science (NOS)
in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) Appendix H
With clarifying phrases in italics, based on the Framework (2012)

  1. Scientific investigations use a variety of methods for gathering, analyzing, testing evidence/clues.
  2. Scientific knowledge is based on empirical evidence; on observations of evidence/clues, not authority.
  3. Scientific knowledge is open to revision in light of new evidence; claims are tentative to some degree; those that survive testing become less tentative, more durable, than others.
  4. Scientific models, laws, mechanisms and theories explain natural phenomena: words of science must be accurately defined.
  5. Science is a way of knowing: follows rules that are empirical, logical, skeptical, objective, giving the most reliable results.
  6. Scientific knowledge assumes an order and consistency in natural systems throughout the universe.
  7. Science is a human endeavor, involving creativity, biases, sensory limits, and benefits of teamwork
  8. Science addresses questions about the natural and material world, not the supernatural.

Included in Appendix H, are two pages structured into a matrix in which many specific Learning Outcomes are listed for each grade band and related to each of the eight Basic Understandings (“Categories” or “Themes”) about the Nature of Science (See Table 1). Four of these extend the Scientific & Engineering Practices dimension of the standards, and four extend the Crosscutting Concepts dimension. For middle school science, there are 26 Learning Outcomes (LOs). For high school science, there are 32 LOs. Some of those NOS LOs are included in those dimensions listed in the “foundation boxes” that accompany the assessable components for each set of DCI standards. But many are not. Given the practical importance for students to recognize the many aspects of NOS, it’s critical that you also incorporate as many of those NOS Learning Outcomes into your curriculum as you can. Before setting up your science curricula to follow the NGSS, be sure to read Appendix H, and make it a point to incorporate those NOS learning outcomes wherever you can.

Now, with Appendix H in the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), we have a mandate to bring a richer treatment of NOS that follows those standards.

Some teachers assume that doing investigations and experiments is all there is to NOS. Or, they assume that their students will somehow absorb the elements of NOS by just doing those activities. This is overly optimistic for all but the brightest students. Studies clearly show that NOS must be taught explicitly if students are to understand and retain that knowledge (Khishfe & Abd-El-Khalick 2002; Schwartz, et al 2004). Reflecting this, Appendix H also says that “… learning about the nature of science requires more than engaging in activities and conducting investigations” (NGSS Lead States 2013, pg. 2, emphasis added).

The key message here is that the nature of science (NOS) is not just the investigative process. For many years, we have recognized that there is an important distinction between the practices of science (doing investigations) and the intrinsic values, assumptions, limits and realm of science. It’s largely when these latter elements are not studied in science classes that most of the confusion and misunderstandings about science persist. For that reason, considerable attention should be focused on those elements when teaching NOS in all of your science classes.

Table 2. Acronyms Defined

NOS = Nature of Science

NGSS = Next Generation Science Standards

LOs – Learning Outcomes
(NOS practices in Appendix H matrix)

DCI = Disciplinary Core Idea

ENSI = Evolution/Nature of Science Institutes

Why Is Science So Misunderstood?

Many, probably most, science teachers have not had much, if any, personal experience with scientific research. This is especially true for elementary teachers, where their training is typically light in science (Lederman 1999). As a result, there is a wide reliance on textbooks, where both teachers and students become informed about science. This is true even in the secondary levels. But when we take a critical look at science textbooks, we find that they are still woefully inadequate, even misleading or inaccurate, in many of the important NOS elements (Abd-El-Khalick, et al 2008).

Many trade books and articles about teaching NOS have been published for teachers (Crowther , et al 2005; McComas 2004). But to my knowledge, there has not been any text for students to use that explains many of the elements of NOS and addresses the many NOS misconceptions. There needs to be a convenient text for students, with interactive lessons that students and teachers can use to help teach and reinforce NOS concepts, and effectively repair their misconceptions. Collections of lessons and activities with suggestions for use are out there for teachers to find and use (Lederman & Abd-El-Khalick 2002; ENSI NOS Lessons. But they lack the integrated structure to address the NOS issues in a coherent way, as a textbook could provide.

What You Can Do About It

So, how can you most effectively bring substantial NOS experiences to your students? Here are several suggestions:

  1. Recognize the problem. Read the research (see references), and see that we’re really not producing enough scientifically literate citizens. The list of references on the Understanding Science website can be very helpful. You might also consider giving your students a NOS Survey to see what misconceptions they have when they enter your class (and also use as a post-test at the end of your NOS unit or your course to measure their progress). Many teachers have found the Science Knowledge Survey on the ENSI website very helpful for doing this.
  1. Review Appendix H in the NGSS. As you look over the many Learning Outcomes listed in the two tables there, jot down ideas about when and where you think each LO would fit best in your curriculum. Make a point of doing at least one NOS lesson in every unit where it best applies.
  1. Gather activities and lessons that are engaging, interactive, student-centered, and focus on NOS, e.g., Lederman & Abd_El-Khalick’s 2002 chapter. Another excellent source is the ENSI website collection of NOS lessons. The ENSI lessons there were classroom-tested in the early 1990s, and have been used and enhanced by many teachers ever since (see FIGURE 1 for an example).
HooeyStick

Figure 1 – Hooey Stick

FIGURE 1. The Magic Hooey Stick is a special kind of “black box.” The spinner changes direction on the command “Hooey!” This suggests something magical, and raises curiosity. But just saying “it’s magic” is not real understanding, so you can redirect that curiosity to seek a scientific (i.e., testable) explanation, and focus on the elements common in scientific inquiry. See the ENSI NOS lesson: Magic Hooey Stick.

  1. Read a few articles that feature and capsulize many of the common misconceptions (or myths) about NOS (McComas 2004; Lederman & Lederman 2004). Read “How Science Really Works” on the Understanding Science website.
  1. Read and use the Debunking Handbook for a researched approach found most effective in helping students to repair their misconceptions about science (but beware of the “Backfire Hazard”).
  1. Use Active Learning strategies to engage students in more effective interactive discussions (Freeman, et al 2013). See the suggestions and very helpful video link at http://www.indiana.edu/~ensiweb/ActiveLearning.html.
  1. Organize your unit and its lessons in the 5-E Constructivist format as much as possible (Bybee, et al 2006). Creative searching for the Engage (1st) step can be the most challenging, but also the most productive. Remember that genuine curiosity is one of the most effective ways to stimulate your students’ motivation for learning (see FIGURE 2 for an engaging experience).
matching_tables_

Figure 2 – Matching Tables

FIGURE 2. Matching Tables?: These two table-tops are exactly the same shape and dimensions. Why don’t they appear that way? (Original illusion by Roger N. Shepard in Mind Sights, 1990). Used in the ENSI NOS lesson: Perception is Not Always Reality.

  1. Use the new student e-text supplement Science Surprises: Exploring the Nature of Science for your students. This booklet coordinates several of the ENSI NOS lessons, and provides exercises to practice several aspects of NOS. Using this classroom-tested booklet along with the ENSI NOS lessons and the Teaching Guide (with its assessments) help to meet all NGSS NOS expectations. The strategies suggested for doing this (see 5, 6 and 7 above) have been incorporated and found to be most effective.
  1. It’s also very important to integrate the elements of NOS into every topic in your course. In every case, this must be done explicitly, so students clearly see the connections between science content and NOS (Lederman & Lederman 2004).

I close with a powerful appeal from Lederman & Abd-El-Khalick (2002, pg. 83) in their introduction (emphases added):

“It is highly unlikely that students and their teachers will come to understand that science is tentative, empirically-based, partly the product of human imagination and creativity, and is influenced by social and cultural factors solely through learning about the content of science or its processes. We believe that a concerted effort on the part of science educators and teachers to explicitly guide learners in their attempts to develop proper understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise is essential. The notion of explicitness is imperative. It is critical that we target teaching the NOS if the desired impact on learners’ conceptions is to be achieved.”

It’s up to you. Think (and do) outside the “NGSS boxes.” Seek and implement NOS experiences in your courses that will meet the Learning Outcomes listed in the NGSS Appendix H. Do this explicitly, wherever you can. And share these insights with your colleagues. Set the goal of raising the science literacy level of all your students. You hold their futures in your hands.

REFERENCES

Abd-El-Khalick, F., M. Waters, and A.-P. Le. 2008. Representations of Nature of Science in High School Chemistry Textbooks Over the Past Four Decades. J. of Research in Science Teaching 45 (7): 835-855. onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/tea.20226/abstract [Select pdf file to download].

Bybee, Rodger W., et al. 2006. The BSCS 5E Instructional Model: Origins and Effectiveness. NIH. Note: Select under “BSCS 5E resources” for Full Report. http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model

Crowther, David T., Norman G. Lederman, and Judith s. Lederman. 2005. Understanding the True Meaning of Nature of Science. 9/27/2005. Teaching suggestions to help you highlight nature of science. NSTA WebNews Digest. http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=51055

Freeman, Scott, et al. 2013. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (23): 8410-8415. http://www.pnas.org/content/111/23/8410.abstract

Khishfe, R., and F. Abd-El-Khalick. 2002. Influence of explicit and reflective versus implicit inquiry- oriented instruction on sixth graders’ views of nature of science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 39(7):551-578. http://undsci.berkeley.edu/teaching/educational_research.php#khishfe.

Lederman, Norman G. and Judith S. Lederman. 2004. Revising Instruction to Teach Nature of Science. The Science Teacher 71 (9): 36-39. http://www.nsta.org/publications/news/story.aspx?id=49932

Lederman, N.G. and Fouad Abd-El-Khalick. 2002. Avoiding De-Natured Science: Activities that Promote Understandings of the Nature of Science. The nature of science in science education. Springer Netherlands. Chapter 5, pp. 83-126. tl.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/NOS_Activities.pdf

McComas, William. 2004. Keys to the Teaching the Nature of Science. The Science Teacher 71 (9): 24-27. web.missouri.edu/~hanuscind/4280/KeysToTeachingNOS.pdf

NGSS Lead States. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards: For States, By States. Appendix H – Understanding the Scientific Enterprise: The Nature of Science in the NGSS. http://www.nextgenscience.org/next-generation-science-standards [select Appendix H].

NRC (National Research Council). 2012. A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, crosscutting concepts and core ideas. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, pp. 78-79. [Click the vertical tab: “Hide Contents”]. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13165&page=78

NSF (National Science Foundation). 2014. Science and Engineering Indicators 2014. Chapter 7: Science & Technology: Public Attitudes & Understanding. Arlington, VA. [Scroll down to “Reasoning and Understanding the Scientific Process.”] Also see paragraphs 3-6 in the Overview/Introductory section. Subsequent data show that science literacy generally runs well below 50% in our country. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind14/index.cfm/chapter-7/c7s2.htm

Schwartz, R.S., N.G. Lederman, and B. Crawford. 2004. Developing views of nature of science in an authentic context: An explicit approach to bridging the gap between nature of science and scientific inquiry. Science Education 88 (4): 610-645. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/227643812_Developing_views_of_nature_of_science_in_an_authentic_context_An_explicit_approach_to_bridging_the_gap_between_nature_of_science_and_scientific_inquiry

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

Leave a Reply

LATEST POST

Accelerating into NGSS – A Statewide Rollout Series Now Accepting Registrations

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

Are you feeling behind on the implementation of NGSS? Then Accelerating into NGSS – the Statewide Rollout event – is right for you!

WHO SHOULD ATTEND
If you have not experienced Phases 1-4 of the Statewide Rollout, or are feeling behind with the implementation of NGSS, the Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout will provide you with the greatest hits from Phases 1-4!

OVERVIEW
Accelerating Into NGSS Statewide Rollout is a two-day training geared toward grade K-12 academic coaches, administrators, curriculum leads, and teacher leaders. Check-in for the two-day rollout begins at 7:30 a.m., followed by a continental breakfast. Sessions run from 8:00 a.m. to 4:15 p.m. on Day One and from 8:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. on Day Two.

Cost of training is $250 per attendee. Fee includes all materials, continental breakfast, and lunch on both days. It is recommended that districts send teams of four to six, which include at least one administrator. Payment can be made by check or credit card. If paying by check, registration is NOT complete until payment has been received. All payments must be received prior to the Rollout location date you are attending. Paying by credit card secures your seat at time of registration. No purchase orders accepted. No participant cancellation refunds.

For questions or more information, please contact Amy Kennedy at akennedy@sjcoe.net or (209) 468-9027.

REGISTER

http://bit.ly/ACCELERATINGINTONGSS

DATES & LOCATIONS
MARCH 28-29, 2018
Host: San Mateo County Office of Education
Location: San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City

APRIL 10-11, 2018
Host: Orange County Office of Education
Location: Brandman University, Irvine

MAY 1-2, 2018
Host: Tulare County Office of Education
Location: Tulare County Office of Education, Visalia

MAY 3-4, 2018
Host: San Bernardino Superintendent of Schools
Location: West End Educational Service Center, Rancho Cucamonga

MAY 7-8, 2018
Host: Sacramento County Office of Education
Location: Sacramento County Office of Education Conference Center and David P. Meaney Education Center, Mather

JUNE 14-15, 2018
Host: Imperial County Office of Education
Location: Imperial Valley College, Imperial

Presented by the California Department of Education, California County Superintendents Educational Services Association/County Offices of Education, K-12 Alliance @WestEd, California Science Project, and the California Science Teachers Association.

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

The Teaching and Learning Collaborative, Reflections from an Administrator

Posted: Friday, January 19th, 2018

by Kelly Patchen

My name is Mrs. Kelly Patchen, and I am proud to be an elementary assistant principal working in the Tracy Unified School District (TUSD) at Louis Bohn and McKinley Elementary Schools. Each of the schools I support are Title I K-5 schools with about 450 students, a diverse student population, a high percentage of English Language Learners, and students living in poverty. We’re also lucky to be part of the CA NGSS K-8 Early Implementation Initiative with the K-12 Alliance. Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by NGSS Early Implementer

NGSS Early Implementer

In 2015 CSTA began to publish a series of articles written by teachers participating in the California NGSS k-8 Early Implementation Initiative. This article was written by an educator(s) participating in the initiative. CSTA thanks them for their contributions and for sharing their experience with the science teaching community.

2018 CSTA Conference Call for Proposals

Posted: Wednesday, January 17th, 2018

CSTA is pleased to announce that we are now accepting proposals for 90-minute workshops and three- and six-hour short courses for the 2018 California Science Education Conference. Workshops and short courses make up the bulk of the content and professional learning opportunities available at the conference. In recognition of their contribution, members who present a workshop or short course receive 50% off of their registration fees. Click for more information regarding proposals, or submit one today by following the links below.

Short Course Proposal

Workshop Proposal Learn More…

Written by California Science Teachers Association

California Science Teachers Association

CSTA represents science educators statewide—in every science discipline at every grade level, Kindergarten through University.

CSTA’s New Administrator Facebook Group Page

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Holly Steele

The California Science Teachers Association’s mission is to promote high-quality science education, and one of the best practice’s we use to fulfill that mission is through the use of our Facebook group pages. CSTA hosts several closed and moderated Facebook group pages for specific grade levels, (Elementary, Middle, and High School), pages for district coaches and science education faculty, and the official CSTA Facebook page. These pages serve as an online resource for teachers and coaches to exchange teaching methods, materials, staying update on science events in California and asking questions. CSTA is happy to announce the creation of a 6th group page called, California Administrators Supporting Science. Learn More…

Written by Guest Contributor

From time to time CSTA receives contributions from guest contributors. The opinions and views expressed by these contributors are not necessarily those of CSTA. By publishing these articles CSTA does not make any endorsements or statements of support of the author or their contribution, either explicit or implicit. All links to outside sources are subject to CSTA’s Disclaimer Policy: http://www.classroomscience.org/disclaimer.

Find Your Reason to Engage

Posted: Monday, January 15th, 2018

by Jill Grace

I was recently reflecting on events in the news and remembered that several years ago, National Public Radio had a story about a man named Stéphane Hessel, a World War II French resistance fighter, Nazi concentration camp survivor, and contributor to the United Nation’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The story focused on a book he had published, Time for Outrage (2010).

In it, Hessel makes the argument that the worst attitude is indifference:

“Who is in charge; who are the decision makers? It’s not always easy to discern. We’re not dealing with a small elite anymore, whose actions we can clearly identify. We are dealing with a vast, interdependent world that is interconnected in unprecedented ways. But there are unbearable things all around us. You have to look for them; search carefully. Open your eyes and you will see. This is what I tell young people: If you spend a little time searching, you will find your reasons to engage. The worst attitude is indifference. ‘There’s nothing I can do; I get by’ – adopting this mindset will deprive you of one of the fundamental qualities of being human: outrage.  Our capacity for protest is indispensable, as is our freedom to engage.”

His words make me take pause when I think of the status of science in the United States. A general “mistrust” of science is increasingly pervasive, as outlined in a New Yorker article from the summer of 2016. Learn More…

Powered By DT Author Box

Written by Jill Grace

Jill Grace

Jill Grace is a Regional Director for the K-12 Alliance and is President of CSTA.