Writing for Conceptual Change
Posted: Tuesday, September 2nd, 2014
by Joey Noelle Lehnhard and Beth Callaghan
In addition to developing scientific habits of mind and critical thinking skills, we know that writing can also be a powerful way to increase our students’ understanding of complex scientific concepts. The Common Core State Standards ask that starting in 6th grade students, “Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.”(CCSS.WHST.6-8.1) In addition, NGSS Practice 7, “Engaging in Argument from Evidence,” asks that starting in 3rd grade, students:
- “Compare and refine arguments based on an evaluation of the evidence presented.”
- “Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in an explanation.”
The reasons for this are fully laid out in the National Research Council’s Framework for K-12 Science Education, upon which the NGSS are based. However, put simply, science uses reasoning to support and develop claims to explain phenomena and develop solutions to problems. Throughout the process, the limitations, strengths, and weaknesses of arguments are continually evaluated. For scientists, this process results in “good science.” For laypersons and students, this process results in being able to distinguish good science from bad and legitimate arguments from fallacious ones.
Effective science teachers can engage their students in scientific writing in many ways. One example, writing refutational text, is a strategy that aids in conceptual change (Tippett 2010) by addressing students’ misconceptions and supports students in arguing from evidence, while also teaching scientific writing conventions. It is particularly appropriate for middle and high school students. Within the refutational writing experience, students begin with a solid grounding in the science concepts before the writing takes place. They do science, read about it, and actively learn before the writing lesson occurs. For instance, in the beginning of the school year, many of us teach the scientific process or what scientists do. We emphasize the nonlinear nature of science by asking our students to revisit and revise their protocols, improve their designs, or even refine their questions through concrete experiences. This is enhanced by lectures or readings on how scientists collect data, make conclusions and design investigations. The refutational writing piece concludes the process.
The following is a sample step-by-step guide to a refutational writing instructional plan:
1. Students read an article that they will be able to refute based on their science experiences, knowledge, and research. Topics may include relevant issues-based topics such as climate change or common misconceptions like density or what causes seasons. Be sure not to show bias when assigning the initial reading. Let students begin with an open mind. Often, this initial reading is assigned as homework.
2. Instruct students to use a reading comprehension strategy as they read: annotation, Cornell notetaking, etc.
3. In partners or small groups, students discuss what they read. Ask them to share what surprised them about the article. Encourage them to be specific by asking them to say more about their thoughts, reiterate or rephrase a classmate’s idea, etc. This gives students opportunities to practice science discourse and enhance their understanding of the vocabulary by using academic language, learning from each other, and refining their own thoughts.
4. Provide an anchor refutational text like the example shown in Figure 1. Identify the parts of the text as a class, e.g., the claim, any evidence, reasoning, etc. Pull out sentence starters to use in their own writing and help them identify what they are refuting: the conclusion, the evidence, the omission of evidence, etc.
5. Give students a writing scaffold to organize their thinking. This should help them connect the science concepts they know to the reading. The scaffold should mirror the type of writing you want from them. We’ve found success using organizers like the one in Figure 2.
6. Ask students to read aloud what they’ve written in the graphic organizer to a partner. We’ve used the quiet, smile, nod strategy to help students begin to actively listen and create a sense of safety for the reader. This can be helpful for all learners, even at the high school level. After both partners read, the two consult and help each other revise their organizers.
7. Give students time to transfer their thoughts into a more formal piece of writing. Often, this is simply a well-constructed paragraph.
8. Use the students’ refutational text to analyze the quality of their arguments. In small groups, have students read two of their texts (with names omitted) and discuss the strength of the two arguments. Afterwards, return students’ own writing and allow them to revise their work.
This process is lengthy and takes more than a single class period; however, including such rigorous writing experiences occasionally throughout the year helps students clarify and internalize the science concepts you are teaching while practicing a skill emphasized in both.
Common Core State Standards and Next Generation Science Standards
In the Common Core literacy in science standards, starting in seventh grade, students are expected to analyze counterclaims in their persuasive writing as well as analyze discipline-specific texts. Perhaps more importantly, developing these scientific habits of mind and critical thinking skills may help students internalize new content more readily in the future and become critical consumers of information in and out of school.
A Framework for K-12 Science Education – Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. 2012.
Tippett, C. D. (2010). Refutation text in science education: A review of two decades of research. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 8(6), 951-970.
Posted: Tuesday, March 14th, 2017
The pre-publication version of the new California Science Curriculum Framework is now available for download. This publication incorporates all the edits that were approved by the State Board of Education in November 2016 and was many months in the making. Our sincere thanks to the dozens of CSTA members were involved in its development. Our appreciation is also extended to the California Department of Education, the State Board of Education, the Instructional Quality Commission, and the Science Curriculum Framework and Evaluation Criteria Committee and their staff for their hard work and dedication to produce this document and for their commitment to the public input process. To the many writers and contributors to the Framework CSTA thanks you for your many hours of work to produce a world-class document.
For tips on how to approach this document see our article from December 2016: California Has Adopted a New Science Curriculum Framework – Now What …? If you would like to learn more about the Framework, consider participating in one of the Framework Launch events (a.k.a. Rollout #4) scheduled throughout 2017.
The final publication version (formatted for printing) will be available in July 2017. This document will not be available in printed format, only electronically.
Posted: Monday, March 13th, 2017
The 2017 Award Season is now open! One of the benefits of being a CSTA member is your eligibility for awards as well as your eligibility to nominate someone for an award. CSTA offers several awards and members may nominate individuals and organizations for the Future Science Teacher Award, the prestigious Margaret Nicholson Distinguished Service Award, and the CSTA Distinguished Contributions Award (organizational award). May 9, 2017 is the deadline for nominations for these awards. CSTA believes that the importance of science education cannot be overstated. Given the essential presence of the sciences in understanding the past and planning for the future, science education remains, and will increasingly be one of the most important disciplines in education. CSTA is committed to recognizing and encouraging excellence in science teaching through the presentation of awards to science educators and organizations who have made outstanding contributions in science education in the state and who are poised to continue the momentum of providing high quality, relevant science education into the future. Learn More…
Posted: Monday, March 13th, 2017
CSTA is now accepting applications from regular, preservice, and retired members to serve on our volunteer committees! CSTA’s all-volunteer board of directors invites you to consider maximizing your member experience by volunteering for CSTA. CSTA committee service offers you the opportunity to share your expertise, learn a new skill, or do something you love to do but never have the opportunity to do in your regular day. CSTA committee volunteers do some pretty amazing things: Learn More…
Posted: Monday, March 13th, 2017
by Marian Murphy-Shaw
If you attended an NGSS Rollout phase 1-3 or CDE workshops at CSTA’s annual conference you may recall hearing from Chris Breazeale when he was working with the CDE. Chris has relocated professionally, with his passion for science education, and is now the Executive Director at the Explorit Science Center, a hands-on exploration museum featuring interactive STEM exhibits located at the beautiful Mace Ranch, 3141 5th St. in Davis, CA. Visitors can “think it, try it, and explorit” with a variety of displays that allow visitors to “do science.” To preview the museum, or schedule a classroom visit, see www.explorit.org. Learn More…
Posted: Monday, March 13th, 2017
by Joseph Calmer
Probably like you, NGSS has been at the forefront of many department meetings, lunch conversations, and solitary lesson planning sessions. Despite reading the original NRC Framework, the Ca Draft Frameworks, and many CSTA writings, I am still left with the question: “what does it actually mean for my classroom?”
I had an eye-opening experience that helped me with that question. It came out of a conversation that I had with a student teacher. It turns out that I’ve found the secret to learning how to teach with NGSS: I need to engage in dialogue about teaching with novice teachers. I’ve had the pleasure of teaching science in some capacity for 12 years. During that time pedagogy and student learning become sort of a “hidden curriculum.” It is difficult to plan a lesson for the hidden curriculum; the best way is to just have two or more professionals talk and see what emerges. I was surprised it took me so long to realize this epiphany. Learn More…